Information From A-Z

 
 
 

The Encyclopedia of Diets is a one-stop source for comprehensive, in-depth and authoritative information on diets and nutrition.

Nutrition and Well Being A to Z examines the relationship between food and health on a historical, national and personal level.


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1. 3-Day Diet
There are a variety of three-day diets that circulate from person to person and on the Internet. They tend to promise weight loss of 10 lb (4.5 kg) or more in just three days.
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2. 3-Hour Diet
The 3-Hour diet is based on the concept that weight loss is best achieved by eating small amounts frequently, in this case, every three hours.
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3. Abs diet
The Abs diet is a six-week plan that combines nutrition and exercise. It emphasizes twelve power foods that are the staples of the diet. It focuses on building muscle through strength training, aerobic exercises, and a dietary balance of proteins, , and fat.
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4. Acne diet
The acne diet or more accurately, the acne-free diet, is simply a way of eating claims to improves or eliminates acne. There is some debate in the medical community about the impact of diet on acne; however, there is a body of evidence to support the idea that what is eaten may affect the skin.
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5. Additives and Preservatives
Additives are defined by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as "any substance, the intended use of which results or may reasonably be expected to result, directly or indirectly, in its becoming a component or otherwise affecting the characteristics of any food." In other words, an additive is any substance that is added to food. Direct additives are those that are intentionally added to foods for a specific purpose. Indirect additives are those to which the food is exposed during processing, packaging, or storing. Preservatives are additives that inhibit the growth of , yeasts, and molds in foods.
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6. ADHD diet
Attention deficit disorder (ADHD) is defined as the combination of inattentive, hyperactive and impulsive behavior which are severe, developmentally inappropriate, and impair function at home and in school. Common features include mood swings, anxiety, impulsivity, hostility, poor concentration and sleeping disorders, along with physical complaints such as headaches, migraines, and stomach upsets. ADHD individuals are also more likely to have been of low birth weight and to have allergies or auto-immune problems. Proportionally more males than females are affected, with inattention tending to be a more female trait and hyperactivity more common in males.
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7. Adolescent nutrition
Nutrition describes the processes by which all of the food a person eats are taken in and the nutrients that the body needs are absorbed. Good nutrition for adolescents can help prevent disease and promote proper health, growth, and development.
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8. Adolescent Nutrition
Adolescence is the transition period between childhood and adulthood, a time of life that begins at . For girls, puberty typically occurs between ages 12 and 13, while for boys it occurs between ages 14 and 15. It is one of the fastest growth periods of a person's life. During this time, physical changes affect the body's nutritional needs, while changes in one's lifestyle may affect eating habits and food choices. Nutritional health during adolescence is important for supporting the growing body and for preventing future health problems.
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9. Adult nutrition
Nutrition describes the processes by which all of the food a person eats are taken in and the nutrients that the body needs are absorbed. Good nutrition can help prevent disease and promote health.
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10. Adult Nutrition
The science of is dedicated to learning about foods that the human body requires at different stages of life in order to meet the nutritional needs for proper growth, as well as to maintain health and prevent disease. A baby is born with a very high requirement for and intake per unit of body weight to provide for rapid growth. The rate of growth is the highest during the first year and declines slowly after the age of two, with a corresponding decrease in nutrient and energy requirements. During , however, increase sharply until this period of fast growth is completed. Adulthood begins at about the age of fourteen or fifteen for girls, and eighteen or nineteen for boys.
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11. African Americans, Diet of
The 2000 U.S. Census revealed that there were almost 35 million African Americans, or about 13 percent of the total U.S. population. This small percentage of the populace has had a significant influence on American cuisine, not only because African-American food is diverse and flavorful, but also because of its historical beginnings. Despite their cultural, political, economic, and racial struggles, African Americans have retained a strong sense of their culture, which is, in part, reflected in their food.
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12. African diet
Africa, the second largest continent in the world, is rich in geographic and cultural diversity. It is a land populated by peoples with histories dating to ancient times and cultures shaped by innumerable tribes, languages, and traditions. Because it is the birthplace of and the land of origin for much of the world’s population, the culture of food and eating in the different regions of Africa is important to people throughout the world.
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13. African-American diet
The 2000 U.S. Census revealed that there were almost 35 million African Americans, or about 13%of the total U.S. population. This small percentage of the populace has had a significant influence on American cuisine, not only because African-American food is diverse and flavorful, but also because of its historical beginnings. Despite their cultural, political, economic, and racial struggles, African Americans have retained a strong sense of their culture, which is, in part, reflected in their food.
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14. Africans, Diets of
Africa, the second largest continent in the world, is rich in geographic and cultural . It is a land populated by peoples with histories dating to ancient times and cultures shaped by innumerable tribes, languages, and traditions. Because it is the birthplace of and the land of origin for much of the world's population, the culture of food and eating in the different regions of Africa is important to people throughout the world.
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15. Aging and Nutrition
Aging Americans will make up an unprecedented proportion of the population as the 78 million baby boomers reach age 50. The baby boomers, those born between 1946 and 1964, will first reach age 65 in 2011, transforming the 35 million people over age 65 in 2000 to an estimated 69 million by 2030. With improved health care, , and health behaviors, people 85 and over are expected to be the fastest-growing group of elderly persons, tripling from 4 million in 2000 to about 14 million by 2040. Growth in the elderly population has led to two subgroups: the young-old (55 to 74 years) and the old-old (75 and older). Still, elderly people remain the most diverse segment of American society.
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16. AIDS/HIV infection
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a complex illness caused by a retrovirus, which is a single-strand virus that replicates by using reverse transcription to produce copies of DNA that become incorporated within the genome of the host cell. The HIV virus destroys a type of white blood cell known as CD4+ T lymphocytes, or T helper cells. These cells are important in maintaining the various functions of the human immune system. When the level of CD4+ T cells in the bloodstream falls, the patient loses the ability to fight off bacteria, viruses, and fungi that would not cause disease in a person with a strong immune system. Infections that occur in people with weakened immune systems are called opportunistic infections.
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17. Alcohol and Health
Alcohol is a central-nervous-system depressant that affects judgment, coordination, and inhibition. Mild alcohol intoxication causes a relaxed and carefree feeling, as well as the loss of inhibitions. After several drinks a person will exhibit impaired judgment, poor coordination, and slurred speech, while consumption of alcohol in large amounts can lead to coma and even death. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is a measurement of the amount of alcohol in a person's blood. Most states consider a person to be legally drunk at a BAC between .08 and .10. At a BAC level of .40 to .50, a person may go into a coma, while a BAC level of .60 to .70 will cause death.
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18. Alcohol consumption
Alcohol consumption is drinking beer, wine, or distilled spirits such as gin, whiskey, or vodka, that contains ethyl alcohol.
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19. Allergies and Intolerances
Food affect approximately 3 percent of children and 1 percent of adults in the United States. It is estimated that an even larger percentage of the population experiences problems with food intolerance. Worldwide, adverse reactions to food constitute a significant public health issue.
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20. Alternative Medicines and Therapies
Alternatives to conventional medical care are increasingly popular in the United States, and their growing use by consumers represents a major trend in Western medicine. Alternative therapies appear to be used most frequently for medical conditions that are , such as back pain, , sleep disorders, headache, and digestive problems. Surveys of U.S. consumers have shown that more people visit alternative practitioners each year than visit conventional primary-care physicians. Consumers do not necessarily reject conventional medicine, however. Many simply feel that alternative modalities offer complementary approaches that are more in line with their personal health philosophies.
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21. American Diabetes Association
American Diabetes Association (ADA) PO Box 363 Mount Morris, IL 61054-0363 USA Toll-Free: (800) 342-2383 or 1-800-DIABETES E-mail: askada @diabetes.org Website:
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22. American Dietetic Association
ADA Location Headquarters 120 South Riverside Plaza, Suite 2000 Chicago, Illinois 60606 Phone: 800/877-1600
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23. American Dietetic Association
The American Dietetic Association (ADA) was founded in 1917, and its stated mission is to "promote optimal and well-being for all people by advocating for its members" (ADA).
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24. American Public Health Association
The American Public Health Association (APHA) is an association of individuals and organizations working to improve the public's health and to achieve equity in health status for all. Founded in 1872, APHA is the oldest and largest organization of public health professionals in the world. APHA members represent over fifty occupations of public health, including physicians, nurses, health educators, community dietitians, social workers, environmentalists, epidemiologists, and others. Members advocate for policies and practices that assure a healthy global society, emphasize health promotion and disease prevention, and seek to protect environmental and community health by addressing issues such as pollution control, and , and the availability of professional education in public health.
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25. American School Food Service Association
The American School Food Service Association (ASFSA), founded in 1946, is dedicated to ensuring that "healthful meals and nutrition education are available to all children." Its stated mission is "to advance good nutrition for all children" (ASFSA).
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26. American School Health Association
The American School Health Association (ASHA) was founded in 1927 by physicians who were members of the American Public Health Association. The main focus of the ASHA is to safeguard the health of school-age children. Over the years it has evolved into a multidisciplinary organization of administrators, counselors, dentists, health educators, physical educators, school nurses, and school physicians that advocates high-quality school health instruction, health services, and a healthful school .
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27. Amino Acids
are the building blocks of . The body has twenty different amino acids that act as these building blocks. Nonessential amino acids are those that the body can synthesize for itself, provided there is enough nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and available. Essential amino acids are those supplied by the , since the human body either cannot make them at all or cannot make them in sufficient quantity to meet its needs. Under normal conditions, eleven of the amino acids are nonessential and nine are essential.
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28. Anemia
affects more than 30 percent of the world's population, and it is one of the most important worldwide health problems. It has a significant in both developing and industrialized nations. Causes of anemia include , particularly of , vitamin B, and (folic acid); excess blood loss from menstruation or illness and infection; ingestion of toxic substances, such as lead, ethanol, and other compounds; and abnormalities such as and .
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29. Anne Collins weight loss program
The Anne Collins weight loss program is a weight loss system accessed on-line after payment of a yearly subscription fee. The system consists of nine separate diet plans plus advice regarding nutrition, exercise, and specific physical disorders; an on-line support community; and personal advice available through e-mail. There are no diet foods, nutritional supplements, appetite suppressants, exercise equipment, or any other products sold as part of the system.
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30. Anorexia nervosa
Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder that involves self-imposed starvation. The individual is obsessed with becoming increasingly thinner and limits food intake to the point where health is compromised. Anorexia nervosa can be fatal.
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31. Anorexia Nervosa
is an characterized by an extreme reduction in food intake leading to potentially life-threatening weight loss. This syndrome is marked by an intense, irrational fear of weight gain or excess body fat, accompanied by a distorted perception of body weight and shape. The onset is usually in the middle to late teens and is rarely seen in females over age forty. Among women of menstruating age with this disorder, is common.
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32. Anthropometric Measurements
The term refers to comparative measurements of the body. Anthropometric measurements are used in nutritional assessments. Those that are used to assess growth and development in infants, children, and adolescents include length, height, weight, weight-for-length, and head circumference (length is used in infants and toddlers, rather than height, because they are unable to stand). Individual measurements are usually compared to reference standards on a growth chart.
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33. Anti-aging diet
The anti-aging diet is one that restricts calorie intake by 30–50% of normal or recommended intake with the goal of increasing human lifespan by at least 30%. People on the diet also have improved health providing they consume adequate , and other essential nutrients.
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34. Anti-inflammatory diets
There is no one anti-inflammatory diet, rather, there are diets designed around foods that are believed to decrease inflammation and which shun foods that aggravate the inflammatory processes. Many anti-inflammatory diets are based around whole grains, legumes, nuts, seeds, fresh vegetables and fruits, wild fish and seafood, grass-fed lean turkey and chicken which are thought to aid in the bodies healing of inflammation. They exclude foods that are thought
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35. Antioxidants
Antioxidants are molecules that prevent oxygen molecules from interacting with other molecules in a process called oxidation. In the body, antioxidants combine with potentially damaging molecules called free radicals to prevent the free radicals from causing damage to cell membranes, DNA, and proteins in the cell. Common antioxidants important to human health are A, C, E, beta-carotene, and In the mid-2000s, about 20% of North Americans and Europeans were taking at least one antioxidant dietary supplement.
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36. Antioxidants
Americans spend several billion dollars a year on in an effort to improve their health. Science has been looking at antioxidants and their role in everything from preventing and to boosting the and slowing the aging process. Antioxidants provide a layer of protection for the cells and tissues of the body, just as a thick coat of wax helps protect a car's finish. Specifically, antioxidants protect against free radical damage. What are ?
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37. Appetite
Why do many people desire ice cream and pie or some other rich dessert after eating a huge Thanksgiving dinner? This desire is referred to as which is not the same as Appetite is a complicated phenomenon, linking biology with . It is a biopsychological system, meaning it is the result of both our biology (hunger) and psychology (desires and feelings).
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38. Arteriosclerosis
The term is used to describe several diseases, including those involving the blood vessels. In this instance, the become hardened and blood vessels lose their "elastic" effect. Arteriosclerosis can begin in early childhood.
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39. Arthritis diet
Arthritis is the general medical term for the inflammation of a joint or a disorder characterized by suchinflammation. There are a number of different arthritides (the plural form of arthritis), and therefore there is no “arthritis diet” as such that has been proposed as a treatment for all these different joint disorders. Dietary therapies for osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the two most commonforms of arthritis, fall into three major categories: mainstream management strategies that focus on weight reduction and well-balanced diets as a way to relieve stress on damaged joints and slow the progression of arthritis; of various types that have been evaluated in clinical trials and have been found to benefit at least some patients; and alternative medical approaches that rely on dietary adjustments (including ) and/or traditional herbal remedies to treat arthritis.
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40. Artificial preservatives
Artificial preservatives are a group of chemical substances added to food, sprayed on the outside of food, or added to certain medications to retard spoilage, discoloration, or contamination by bacteria and other disease organisms. Most preservatives are categorized by the federal government as , which are defined by the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C) of 1938 as “any substance, the intended use of which results directly or indirectly, in its becoming a component or otherwise affecting the characteristics of food.” A subcategory of food preservatives are classified as (GRAS), which means that the government accepts the current scientific consensus on their safety, based on either their use prior to 1958 or to well-known scientific information.
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41. Artificial sweeteners
Artificial sweeteners, which are also called sugar substitutes, alternative sweeteners, or non-sugar sweeteners, are substances used to replace sugar in foods and beverages. They can be divided into two large groups: nutritive sweeteners, which add some energy value (calories) to food; and nonnutritive sweeteners, which are also called high-intensity sweeteners because they are used in very small quantities as well as adding no energy value to food. Nutritive sweeteners include the natural sugars—sucrose (table sugar; a compound of glucose and fructose), fructose (found in fruit as well as table sugar), and galactose (milk sugar)—as well as the polyols, which are a group of carbohydrate compounds that are not sugars but provide about half the calories of the natural sugars. The polyols are sometimes called sugar replacers,
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42. Artificial Sweeteners
Artificial sweeteners may assist in weight management, prevention of dental , and control of blood for diabetics. It has also been suggested that low-calorie sweeteners may stimulate the appetite, but the bulk of evidence does not support this hypothesis. Conclusive research demonstrates that artificial sweeteners have no effect on , short- or long-term blood glucose control, or secretion, and they are thus an excellent sugar alternative for diabetics. There have been a number of health concerns related with these products, though the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval process for artificial sweeteners involves a comprehensive analysis of scientific data to satisfy safety requirements. All "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS) sweeteners have undergone extensive safety testing and have been carefully reviewed by the FDA.
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43. Asian Americans, Diets of
Asian Americans represent a large and rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, there were 11.9 million Asian Americans residing in the United States (4.2 percent of the total population) in the year 2000. Chinese Americans were the leading Asian group (not including Taiwanese Americans), followed by Filipinos (2.4 million) and Asian Indians (1.9 million). A U.S. Census estimate predicts a tripling of this population by 2050.
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44. Asian diet
The Asian diet is an ancient and time honored way of eating. For thousands of years people of the Asian world have eaten a diet based on plant foods such as rice, vegetables, and fresh fruits. Unlike Western diets, meat is rarely the main dish of any meal but rather an accent and flavor compliment. Fish is often eaten in main courses.
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45. Asians, Diet of
With forty-seven countries, innumerable tribes, and thousands of distinct languages, Asia is home to more ethnic groups than any other part of the world. In addition, the geography and climate of Asia are as diverse as its nations and peoples. From the lush rice paddies of the Philippines to the crowded Tokyo metropolis to the rainforests of Indonesia, there is a staggering variety of fruit, food, and spices in this extraordinary part of the world. Asia can be divided into three regions: East Asia (including China, Taiwan, Japan, and Korea); Southeast Asia (including Malaysia, Singapore, and the Philippines); and South Asia (including India and Sri Lanka).
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46. Atherosclerosis
Macrovascular disease, or , is the cause of more than half of all mortality in developed countries and the leading cause of death in the United States. It is a progressive disease of the large- and medium-sized . The name is derived from the Greek meaning "gruel" or "paste" and meaning "hardening." Thus, atherosclerosis is the hardening of the arteries due to the accumulation of this paste (commonly called plaque).
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47. Atkins diet
The Atkins diet is named for Robert C. Atkins, M.D., the diet’s founder. It is based on restrictions of and focuses on eating mostly and fat, along with use of vitamin and mineral supplements.
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48. Baby Bottle Tooth Decay
Baby bottle tooth decay occurs in young children when their teeth or gums are exposed to infant formula, milk, juice, or other sweet drinks for long periods of time. This often happens when infants or toddlers fall asleep while sucking on a bottle. Breastfed infants are usually not at risk, unless they feed for extended periods. The in the drink (lactose in milk, or fructose in fruit drinks) mix with the normal in the mouth. This bacteria is found in the on teeth and gums. When plaque mixes with carbohydrates, acids are formed that dissolve tooth enamel, causing tooth decay and dental . To prevent baby bottle tooth decay, a child should not be put in bed with a bottle; and the bottle should be taken away as soon as mealtime is over. Further, only formula or water should be put in a bottle; juices and sweet drinks should be offered in a cup.
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49. Bariatric surgery
Bariatric surgery is a surgical weight-loss procedure that reduces or bypasses the stomach or small intestine so that severely overweight people can achieve significant and permanent weight loss.
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50. Battle Creek Sanitarium, Early Health Spa
The Western Health Reform Institute, which opened in 1866, was originally a residence belonging to Benjamin Graves, a judge of the Michigan Superior Court. Set on eight acres of land, this farm house gave no hint of what it was to become, but already there were ideas and propositions for the building that would lead to a worldwide reputation.
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51. Beikost
The German word translates as "foods other than milk or formula." It refers to the first strained foods that are given to a young infant as a supplement to breast milk or formula. Beikost is introduced between four and six months of age, when an infant develops the appropriate oral motor skills and can indicate disinterest by leaning back and turning away. The first foods introduced vary by country, but are generally soft mashed foods that are easily digested. If solid foods are added before four months, there is a risk of overfeeding or negative physical reactions such as diarrhea.
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52. Beriberi
Thiamin, or vitamin B, is a vitamin that plays a role in production (through the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate [ATP]) and nerve conduction. (ATP is the major source of energy that the human body utilizes to do work.) Thiamin is found in abundance in foods such as lean pork, , and yeast. In contrast, polished (white) rice, white flour, refined sugars, fats, and oils are foods lacking this vitamin. People at risk for thiamin deficiency include those who consume large quantities of alcohol and those who live in impoverished conditions, for such people are deficient in substantial amounts of and .
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53. Bernstein diet
The Bernstein diet is a low-carbohydrate, for people with diabetes (diabetics). It goes against the conventional high-carbohydrate, low-fat diabetic diet recommended by much of the medical community.
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54. Beta-Carotene
Beta-carotene is the most active of the deeply colored pigments called . After consumption, beta-carotene converts to retinol, a readily usable form of vitamin A. Beta-carotene's beneficial effects include protecting the skin from sunlight damage, fighting early cells, boosting immunity, and preventing formation. It also stops the creation of (oxidants), which are DNA-damaging molecular fragments in the body.
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55. Beverly Hills diet
The Beverly Hills diet is a diet created by Judy Mazel. She believes that weight loss can be achieved by eating foods in the proper combinations and in the correct order.
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56. Bezoars
Bezoars are balls of undigested materials, , and undissolved medicines that resist the action of digestive in the stomach. Bezoars are the result of a lack of stomach hydrochloric acid secretion, without which medicine like sulfa , , and antacid tablets may not dissolve. They may also be caused by poor stomach emptying.
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57. Binge eating
Binge eating an abnormal eating pattern in which an individual eats significantly more food in a limited time than most people typically would eat. The time-frame for a binge is usually 1–2 hours.
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58. Binge Eating
(BED), also known as compulsive overeating, has been designated as a psychiatric disorder requiring further study by the American Psychiatric Association. Like bulimics, individuals suffering from binge eating disorder indulge in regular episodes of gorging, but unlike bulimics, they do not purge afterward. Binges are accompanied by a similar sense of guilt, embarrassment, and loss of self-control seen among bulimics. Because of the tremendous number of consumed, many people with BED are or , and as a result they are more prone to complications such as , , high , and .
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59. Bioavailability
A nutrient's is the proportion of the nutrient that, when ingested, actually gets absorbed by the body. The remaining amount cannot be metabolized and is removed as waste. The ability to absorb nutrients varies by gender, disease state, and physiologic condition (e.g., pregnancy, aging). The bioavailability of a nutrient can also increase or decrease if other substances are present. For example, and magnesium lose much of their effectiveness if taken with fatty foods. The themselves may also regulate the amount of a mineral that enters the bloodstream. For these reasons, taking high-potency vitamin supplements does not guarantee that all of the included nutrients will enter one's system.
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60. Bioengineered foods
Bioengineered foods are foods that have had a gene from a different species of plant or other organism introduced to produce desired characteristics or traits.
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61. Biotechnology
The term refers to the use of scientific techniques, including engineering, to improve or modify plants, animals, and . In its most basic forms, biotechnology has been in use for millennia. For example, Middle Easterners who domesticated and bred deer, antelope, and sheep as early as 18,000 ; Egyptians who made wine in 4000 ; and Louis Pasteur, who developed in 1861, all used biotechnology. In recent years, however, food biotechnology has become synonymous with the terms and (GMO).
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62. Biotin
Biotin, also known as vitamin H or vitamin B, belongs to the group of -complex water-soluble . Humans make only a small amount of biotin, so most biotin must come from the foods they eat. Biotin is involved in conversion of and into usable energy in the body.
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63. Blood type diet
The Blood Type diet is a way of eating that relies on an individual’s blood type (A, B, AB, or O) to dictate one’s diet. In his book, Eat Right for Your Blood Type, naturopathic doctor Peter D’Adamo, presents the idea that an individual’s blood type determines which foods are healthy for him and which foods are not. The book presents the anthropological origins of each of the four blood types and explains why each blood type developed specific antibodies against certain foods.
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64. Bob Greene's diet
Bob Greene’s diet is two separate but similar programs with two different websites is divided into four phases: Truth, commitment, and self-control; Revving up your Getting real about emotional eating; and Securing a life of health and emotional well-being. The Best Life Diet is comprised of three phases: establishing a regular pattern of exercise and eating; exploring the physical and emotional reasons for hunger; and learning weight management for life. Both programs are moderate and nutritionally balanced weight loss regimens combined with an exercise program and psychological introspection.
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65. Body Fat Distribution
accumulation is referred to as body fat distribution. For individuals with (apple-shaped) distribution, fat is centered around the abdominal area. This leads to an increased risk for coronary artery disease, , , and high and levels. It is also an indicator for . (pear-shaped) distribution is associated with body fat that accumulates around the hip and thigh region.
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66. Body for Life diet
Body for Life is a 12-week diet and rigorous exercise program designed by former competitive bodybuilder Bill Phillips. The program promises those who follow it faithfully that after 12 weeks they will not only have lost about 25 lb (10 kg) if they are
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67. Body image
Body image is a person’s mental opinion or description of his or her own physical appearance. It also involves the reactions of others toward that person’s physical body based on what is perceived by that person. The concept of body image slowly develops
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68. Body Image
The term refers to the view that a person has of his or her own body size and proportion. Body-image distortion occurs when a person's view of their body is significantly different from reality.
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69. Body mass index
Body mass index (BMI), also called the Quetelet Index, is a calculation used to determine an individual’s amount of body fat.
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70. Body Mass Index
Body weight is used as an indicator of an individual's health. It is usually compared to tables that list "ideal" or "desirable" weight ranges for specific heights. Some of these tables use values gathered from research studies, while some include the heights and weights of individuals who have bought life insurance (e.g., the Metropolitan Height and Weight Tables). An individual's weight can be described as a percentage of the ideal or desirable weight listed, and can also be categorized as healthy, underweight, , or . An additional method of comparing an individual to a population group is with the .
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71. Bodybuilding diet
The bodybuilding diet is designed to build muscle and reduce body fat. It emphasizes foods high in and complex such as whole grain bread, pasta, and cereal. There are many variations of the bodybuilding diet but an essential component remains the same throughout, a regular strength-building exercise building program.
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72. Breastfeeding
Breastfeeding is the practice of feeding an infant milk through the mother’s breast. According to La Leche League International (LLLI), human milk is ’a living fluid that protects babies from disease and actively contributes to the development of every system in baby’s body”’. Breastfeeding stimulates babies’ immune systems and protects against diarrhea and infection.
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73. Breastfeeding
Before 1900, most mothers breastfed their infants. Breastfeeding rates declined sharply worldwide after 1920, when evaporated cow's milk and infant formula became widely available. These were promoted as being more convenient for mothers and more nutritious than human milk. Breastfeeding rates began rising again in the late 1950s and early 1960s.
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74. Brillat-Savarin, Jean Anthelme
75. British Heart Foundation diet
The British Heart Foundation diet is a three day diet that claims to allow dieters to lose 10 pounds in three days if they follow the diet’s specific meal plan. It was not created by nor is it endorsed by the British Heart Foundation. .
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76. Bulimia nervosa
Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder that involves repeated followed by purging the body of calories to avoid gaining weight. The person who has bulimia has an irrational fear of gaining weight and a distorted Bulimia nervosa can have potentially fatal health consequences. .
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77. Bulimia Nervosa
nervosa is an characterized by frequent episodes of eating, which are followed by purging to prevent weight gain. During these incidents, unusually large portions of food are consumed in secret, followed by compensatory behaviors such as self-induced vomiting or diuretic and laxative abuse. Although the types of food chosen may vary, sweets and high-calorie foods are commonly favored. Bulimic episodes are typically accompanied by a sense of a loss of self-control and feelings of shame.
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78. Cabbage Soup Diet
The cabbage soup diet is a quick weight loss program intended to be followed for seven days. The centerpiece of the diet is a recipe for cabbage soup, which the dieter may consume in unlimited quantities. In addition to the cabbage soup, there are certain other foods the dieter must eat on specific days during the week. There are several versions of the diet, most of which promise a 10-17 lb weight loss during the week.
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79. Caffeine
Caffeine is a mild alkaloid stimulant made by some plants. It is found in coffee beans, tea leaves, and cocao beans, added to soft drinks, energy drinks, energy bars, and sold in capsules and tablets as a dietary supplement. Caffeine has no nutritional value.
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80. Caffeine
Caffeine is a naturally occurring stimulant found in the leaves, seeds, or fruit of over sixty plants around the world. Caffeine exists in the coffee bean in Arabia, the tea leaf in China, the kola nut in West Africa, and the cocoa bean in Mexico. Because of its use throughout all societies, caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive substance in the world. The most common caffeine sources in North America and Europe are coffee and tea. Since about 1980, extensive research has been conducted on how caffeine affects health. Most experts agree that moderate use of caffeine (300 milligrams, or about three cups of coffee, per day) is not likely to cause health problems.
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81. Calcium
Calcium (Ca) is the most abundant mineral in the body. About 99% of calcium in the body is in bones and teeth. The remaining 1% is in blood and soft tissue. Calcium in body fluids is an electrolyte with a charge of + 2. Humans must meet their need for calcium through diet.
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82. Calcium
is one of the most important elements in the because it is a structural component of bones, teeth, and soft tissues and is essential in many of the body's processes. It accounts for 1 to 2 percent of adult body weight, 99 percent of which is stored in bones and teeth. On the cellular level, calcium is used to regulate the permeability and electrical properties of membranes (such as cell walls), which in turn control muscle and nerve functions, glandular secretions, and blood vessel dilation and contraction. Calcium is also essential for proper .
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83. Calorie
Technically, a is the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram (kg) of water 1 degree Celsius. One calorie is 1/1000 of a kilocalorie (a kcalorie or Calorie). The kcalorie is the unit by which food, and the amount of a person takes in is measured. To maintain one's weight, energy intake should equal energy expenditure. If energy intake is negative (if a person consumes fewer kilocalories than he or she needs or expends) then weight loss will occur. If energy intake is positive (if a person consumes more kilocalories than he or she needs and expends), weight gain will occur.
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84. Calorie Restriction
The definition of calorie restriction is when the body does not receive an adequate intake of energy. This can result as a consequence of lack of availability of adequate volumes of food. However, sometimes the failure to consume an adequate calorie intake may be a conscious and deliberate decision, for example, in individuals seeking to lose weight or people who suffer with the eating disorder, . Calorie restriction can result in malnutrition or a deficiency of one or more nutrients.
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85. Cambridge Diet
The Cambridge diet is a commercial very-low-calorie diet (VLCD). The diet was first used only in weight-loss clinics in the United Kingdom. In the early 1980s, the products associated with the diet (powder mix, meal bars, and liquid meals) started selling commercially in the United States and the United Kingdom. Formulations of the Cambridge diet in the United Kingdom differ from that sold in the United States. In both the United Kingdom and North America, the Cambridge products are available only from distributors; they cannot be purchased over the counter at pharmacies or supermarkets.
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86. Cancer
Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled growth of cells in the human body and the ability of these cells to travel from the original site and spread to distant sites. Another name for cancer cells is malignant cells. Diet and nutrition play an important role in cancer prevention and cancer treatment.
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87. Cancer
is a disease characterized by the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells. Around the world, over 10 million cancer cases occur annually. Half of all men and one-third of all women in the United States will develop some form of cancer during their lifetime. It is one of the most feared diseases, primarily because half of those diagnosed with cancer in the United States will die from it. Cancer is a leading cause of death around the world, causing over 6 million deaths a year. The exact causes of most types of cancer are still not known, and there is not yet a cure for cancer. However, it is now known that the risk of developing many types of cancer can be reduced by adopting certain lifestyle changes, such as quitting smoking and eating a better .
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88. Cancer-Fighting Foods
It appears more than ever, that there is a great deal of truth to the philosophy of eating fruits and vegetables to maintain optimum health. It is not only because of the nutrients they contain in the form of and also because of the chemicals found in these foods. Scientists continue to extensively study the nutrient quality and quantity of foods we consume. Although scientists are still not certain about the specifics, they’re beginning to close in on the healthful constituents of plant-based foods. In particular, they’re looking closely at two components: phytochemicals and The goal is to determine precisely how and why these substances in fruits and vegetables can prevent or stop the development of tumors and When animals are given vegetables and fruits before being exposed to carcinogen (cancer-causing agents), they are less likely to develop cancer. Although additional experimental data needs to be collected in humans, there is evidence to suggest that consuming generous amounts of fruits and vegetables plays an important role in preventing cancer.
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89. Carbohydrate Addict's Diet
The carbohydrate addict’s diet is an eating plan that emphasizes foods low in (carbs). It is based on the theory that some people develop unmanageable for high-carb foods due to the pancreas producing too much insulin, leading to weight gain.
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90. Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are compounds that consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, linked together by energy-containing bonds. There are two types of carbohydrates: complex and simple. The complex carbohydrates, such as starch and are classified as
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91. Carbohydrates
are one of three macronutrients that provide the body with ( and fats being the other two). The chemical compounds in carbohydrates are found in both simple and complex forms, and in order for the body to use carbohydrates for energy, food must undergo digestion, , and . It is recommended that 55 to 60 percent of caloric intake come from carbohydrates.
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92. Cardiovascular Disease
The system comprises the heart, veins, , and capillaries, which carry blood back and forth from the heart to the lungs (pulmonary circulation) and from the heart to the rest of the body (systemic circulation). The heart works on electrical impulses and produces them constantly, unless , fear, or danger is involved, in which case the impulses will increase dramatically. The body's largest artery is the aorta and the largest vein is the vena cava. Veins are thinner than arteries, which resemble rubber bands in that they expand more easily (depending on the amount of blood passing through them). Smaller blood vessels, or capillaries, channel and blood to tissues. The process is a cycle in which the capillaries deliver oxygen-rich blood to the body and pick up oxygen-poor blood, which is then taken into the veins and finally to the heart to be "rejuvenated" or cleansed.
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93. Careers in Dietetics
The science and profession of and dietetics is based on the application of foods and nutrition to promote health and treat disease. Most dietitians and nutritionists work in , community, public health, or food service settings. Others work as consultants or researchers, in the food industry, in university, worksite, medical school, home health, or fitness center settings. Some persons work for world or regional health organizations. At least a bachelor's degree in dietetics, foods, and nutrition is needed to practice as a dietitian or a nutritionist. Dietetic technicians need an associate's degree.
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94. Caribbean Islander Diet
Travel advertisements for the Caribbean Islands portray long stretches of sun-drenched beaches and swaying palm trees, with people dancing to jazz, calypso, reggae, or meringue music. Indeed, the beauty, warmth, and lush landscapes had Christopher Columbus in awe in 1492 when he came upon these tropical islands, stretching approximately 2,600 miles between Florida and Venezuela.
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95. Caribbean Islanders, Diet of
Travel advertisements for the Caribbean Islands portray long stretches of sun-drenched beaches and swaying palm trees, with people dancing to jazz, calypso, reggae, or meringue music. Indeed, the beauty, warmth, and lush landscapes had Christopher Columbus in awe in 1492 when he came upon these tropical islands, stretching approximately 2,600 miles between Florida and Venezuela.
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96. Carotenoids
Carotenoids are fat-soluble plant pigments, some of which are important to human health. The most common carotenoids in the diet of North Americans are alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene.
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97. Carotenoids
are a group of red and yellow fat-soluble compounds that pigment different types of plants, such as flowers, citrus fruits, tomatoes, and carrots, as well as animals, such as salmon, flamingos, and goldfish. The ingestion of carotenoids is essential to human health, not only because some convert into Vitamin A, but also because they have effects, which may combat such diverse problems as and . Carotenoids also help prevent by inhibiting lowdensity lipoprotein (LDL) (the "bad" cholesterol) from sticking to walls and creating plaques.
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98. Caveman Diet
The caveman diet is a diet that is intended to mimic, as closely as possible, the way that the ancestors of humans ate more than 10,000 years ago.
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99. Celiac Disease
Celiac disease, also known as sprue, celiac sprue, nontropical sprue, and gluten-sensitive enteropathy, is a life-long autoimmune disease in which the body’s reaction to gluten causes damage to the intestines that results in poor absorption of nutrients.
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100. Central American and Mexican Diet
The diets of peoples in Mexico and Central America (Guatemala, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, Belize, and Costa Rica) have several commonalities, though within the region great differences in methods of preparation and in local recipes exist. The basis of the traditional diet in this part of the world is corn (maize) and beans, with the addition of meat, animal products, local fruits, and vegetables. As in other parts of the world, the diet of people in this area has expanded to include more processed foods. In many parts of Mexico and Central America, access to a variety of foods remains limited, and undernutrition, particularly among children, is a major problem. Although access to an increased variety of foods can improve the adequacy of both macronutrient and micronutrient status, there is evidence that the use of processed foods is contributing to the rapidly increasing prevalence of and diet-related chronic diseases such as diabetes.
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101. Central Americans and Mexicans, Diets of
The diets of peoples in Mexico and Central America (Guatemala, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, Belize, and Costa Rica) have several commonalities, though within the region great differences in methods of preparation and in local recipes exist. The basis of the traditional in this part of the world is corn (maize) and beans, with the addition of meat, animal products, local fruits, and vegetables. As in other parts of the world, the diet of people in this area has expanded to include more . In many parts of Mexico and Central America, access to a variety of foods remains limited, and , particularly among children, is a major problem. Although access to an increased variety of foods can improve the adequacy of both and status, there is evidence that the use of processed foods is contributing to the rapidly increasing of and diet-related diseases such as .
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102. Central European and Russian Diet
A health gap separates Central and Eastern Europe from the United States, Canada, Japan, and the Western part of Europe. This East-West gap in health started during the 1960s. Almost half of this gap was due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality differentials. There has been a marked increase of CVD in Central and Eastern Europe, which is only partially explainable by the high prevalence of the three traditional CVD risk factors (hypercholesterolemia, , and smoking) in these countries. There is an extreme nonhomogeneity of the former Soviet bloc, and the data from each country must be analyzed individually. The aim here is to present the latest available data, which show the health status of various regions of postcommunist Europe. All data used are taken from the World Health Organization (WHO) Health for All Database (as updated in June 2003). The last available data from most countries are from the year 2002.
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103. Central Europeans and Russians, Diets of
A health gap separates Central and Eastern Europe from the United States, Canada, Japan, and the Western part of Europe. This East-West gap in health started during the 1960s. Almost half of this gap was due to disease (CVD) mortality differentials. There has been a marked increase of CVD in Central and Eastern Europe, which is only partially explainable by the high of the three traditional CVD risk factors (, , and smoking) in these countries. There is an extreme nonhomogeneity of the former Soviet bloc, and the data from each country must be analyzed individually. The aim here is to present the latest available data, which show the health status of various regions of postcommunist Europe. All data used are taken from the World Health Organization (WHO) Health for All Database (as updated in June 2003). The last available data from most countries are from the year 2002.
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104. Changeone Diet
The aim of “ChangeOne: Lose Weight Simply, Safely, and Forever” is to provide a simple, straightforward plan for gradual, permanent weight loss. The book features a twelve-week eating plan that outlines portion sizes, recipes and meal suggestions designed to achieve weight loss. A major distinguishing feature of the ChangeOne plan is its emphasis on making lifestyle changes gradually over a three month interval, rather than advocating a complete, abrupt transformation of existing eating patterns. The diet is based on everyday foods, both home-prepared and available in restaurants and does not require purchase of special foods or supplements.
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105. Chicken Soup Diet
The chicken soup diet is a seven day diet that allows the dieter to eat one of five approved breakfasts each day and as much chicken soup as desired.
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106. Childhood Nutrition
Childhood nutrition refers to the dietary needs of healthy children aged 2 years through 11 years of age. Since children younger than 2 years of age and children over the age of 11 years of age have unique nutritional requirements and concerns, the focus of this summary is primarily on healthy children aged 2 to 11 years. (Children with special health care needs and who have special dietary needs require additional guidance beyond what will be discussed and should seek the skills of a Pediatrician or a Registered Dietitian).
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107. Childhood Obesity
Childhood is the condition of being overweight or severely overweight which causes risks to health between the ages of 2 and 19.
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108. Childhood Obesity
There have always been children. Historically, chubby babies and toddlers were more likely to survive infections and contagious diseases, and overweight children and family members were often signs of affluence and financial security in a community. Thus, in some cultures, overweight was a valued body type.
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109. Children's Diets
Because children grow at different rates and at different times, it becomes harder to distinguish if a child is overweight compared to establishing overweight in adults. To determine if a child is within an un-healthy weight range, a doctor will use certain criteria to measure a child’s height and weight. The (BMI), expressed as body weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters (kg/m2), is a weight-for-height index. The BMI is the standard assessment in adults, and its use within the pediatric population has limited research to support its effectiveness is still considered the standard measure of overweight in children. The International
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110. Chocolate Diet
The Chocolate diet is a weight-loss plan that includes the daily consumption of limited amounts of chocolate. The phrase “chocolate diet” also signifies the consumption of chocolate because of claims of health benefits such as lowering cholesterol.
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111. Choline
Choline is a nutrient required by the body. It does not meet the classic definition of a vitamin because the body makes some choline, but not enough to support health. The remainder must be acquired through diet. For practical purposes, choline is grouped with the B-complex because it is a water-soluble compound that performs some functions similar to these vitamins.
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112. Chromium
Chromium is a mineral that is essential to humans It is found naturally in a variety of foods, and supplements are available in capsules or tablets. Supplements are prepared using a number of formulas, including chromium chromium aspartate, chromium chloride, chromium citrate, chromium nicotinate,
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113. Cleveland Clinic 3-Day Diet
The Cleveland Clinic three-day diet is a very low-calorie diet or quick weight loss program intended to be followed, as the name indicates, for three days. There are certain foods (e.g., specific vegetables, hot dogs, vanilla ice cream, and saltine crackers) that the dieter must eat on specific days during the three-day period, although some versions of the diet allow substitutions. Most Internet versions of this diet promise a 10 lb (4.5 kg) weight loss over the first three days, or 40 lb (18 kg) if the diet is followed for a month. The Cleveland Clinic diet plan is primarily available on the Internet.
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114. College Students, Diets of
When students first enter college, their diets often deteriorate and they often gain weight. There are many factors responsible for these changes. However, there are also several actions that can be taken to avoid the weight gain and decline in quality that may occur during the college years.
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115. Commodity Foods
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) administers several programs that distribute commodity foods, which are foods that the federal government has the legal authority to purchase and distribute in order to support farm prices. The first commodity distribution program began during the Great Depression of the 1930s, when it was known as the Needy Family Program. This was the main form of food assistance for low-income people in the United States until the Food Stamp Program was expanded in the early 1970s. The Needy Family Program distributed surplus agricultural commodities such as cheese, butter, and other items directly to low-income people. Today, the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, administers the nation's commodity food distribution programs. The programs continue to improve the nutrition status of low-income people, while providing a means for using surplus agricultural commodities from U.S. farm programs.
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116. Comprehensive School Health Program
The Comprehensive School Health Program (CSHP) is a national program in the United States that makes efforts in schools to improve the health of children. Since schools profoundly influence the health of young people, the CSHP is very important. The program is supported by a national health organization, the American School Health Association (ASHA), which is actively involved in improving the health of school-age children.
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117. Constipation
Constipation is a symptom characterized by either having fewer than three bowel movements a week or having difficulty passing stools that are often hard, small, and dry.
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118. Convenience Foods
Convenience foods are foods that have had preparation steps incorporated into their processing, or have been completely prepared during processing. This decreases preparation steps and time for the consumer. The "convenience" can mean the premixing of the ingredients for a cake or offering a fully prepared frozen meal. The term convenience food is generic and can apply to just about any food, but it is generally used in reference to canned items, instant foods or mixes, frozen foods or meals, and fast foods. Although they can be more costly than home-cooked meals, the trend is toward their increased use throughout the world.
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119. Copper
Copper is essential for normal development of the body because it:
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120. Corn- or Maize-Based Diets
Maize, the American Indian word for corn, literally means "that which sustains life." After wheat and rice, it is the most important cereal grain in the world, providing for humans and animals. It also serves as a basic raw material for the production of starch, oil, , alcoholic beverages, food sweeteners, and fuel. Maize has the highest average yield per hectare.
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121. Coronary Heart Disease
Coronary heart disease is the narrowing or blockage of the arteries and vessels that provide oxygen and nutrients to the heart. It is caused by a condition called atherosclerosis, which is the gradual buildup of fatty materials on the arteries” inner linings. The blockage that results from the buildup restricts blood flow to the heart. When the blood flow is completely cut off, a heart attack can occur.
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122. Cravings
Most people, at some time, have a strong desire for some particular food, such as ice cream or pizza. Such a desire for a particular food, even when one is not hungry, is called a craving.
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123. Cravings
Most people, at some time, have a strong desire for some particular food, such as ice cream or pizza. Such a desire for a particular food, even when one is not hungry, is called a craving. There are a number of theories as to why people crave certain foods, including:
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124. Crohn's Disease
Crohn’s disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder that affects the digestive tract.
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125. Csiro Total Wellbeing Diet
The CSIRO total wellbeing diet (TWD) is a high-protein, low-fat, moderate-carbohydrate weight-loss and maintenance diet developed by Australia’s national science agency, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO). It is a very structured, calorie-controlled, and nutritionally balanced diet that includes exercise and large amounts of protein from meat, fish, and poultry.
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126. Cultural Competence
Despite notable progress in the overall health of Americans, there are continuing disparities in health status among African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Pacific Islanders, compared to the U.S. population as a whole. In addition, the health care system is becoming more challenged as the population becomes more ethnically diverse. Therefore, the future health of the U.S. population as a whole will be influenced substantially by improvements in the health of racial and ethnic minorities.
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127. Dash Diet
DASH stands for the Dietary Approaches to Stop . The DASH diet is based on DASH Study results published in 1997. The study showed that a diet rich in fruits, vegetables and low fat dairy foods, with reduced saturated and total fat could substantially lower blood pressure. It is the diet recommended by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (part of the National Institute of Health) for lowering blood pressure.
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128. Dean Ornish's Eat More, Weigh Less
Dean Ornish’s Eat More, Weigh Less diet focuses on eating a diet of plant products low in fat, oils, and simple to achieve weight loss and better health without feelings of deprivation and hunger. It also emphasizes stress reduction techniques and light exercise. Dean Ornish, M.D. not only recommends this style of diet for weight loss, but also believes it can prevent and even reverse some forms of heart disease.
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129. Dehydration
Dehydration is a condition in which the body looses too much usually as a result of excess sweating, vomiting, and/or diarrhea.
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130. Dehydration
is the excessive loss of water from the body. Water can be lost through urine, sweat, feces, respiration, and through the skin. Symptoms of dehydration in order of severity are: thirst, , chills, clammy skin, increased heart rate, muscle pain, reduced sweating, dizziness, headache, shortness of breath, dry mouth, , lack of sweating, hallucinations, fainting, and loss of consciousness. Dehydration can affect mental alertness, renal function, circulation, and total physical capacity.
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131. Denise Austin Fit Forever
Denise Austin’s Fit Forever is an Internet based diet and exercise program that focuses on developing a personalized plan for healthy eating and an active lifestyle. Individuals who join the Fit Forever program receive customized exercise regimens based on their body type; daily meal plans and recipes; as well as motivational assistance in the form or support groups, testimonials, and information on creating a healthier lifestyle.
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132. Detoxification Diets
Detoxification diets, or detox diets for short, are a group of short-term diets intended to release accumulated toxins and waste products from the body. They are based on a theory of digestion and elimination usually associated with naturopathy, an alternative medical system that emphasizes the role of nutrition in restoring or improving the body’s own self-healing properties. In general, detox diets emphasize the following:
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133. Dhea
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a precursor (prohormone) of the sex hormones estrogen and testosterone. It is a steroid produced naturally by the adrenal glands and is also sold as a dietary supplement.
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134. Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes mellitus is a condition in which the pancreas no longer produces enough insulin or cells stop responding to the insulin that is produced, so that glucose in the blood cannot be absorbed into the cells of the body. Symptoms include frequent urination, lethargy, excessive thirst, and hunger. The treatment includes changes in diet, oral medications, and in some cases, daily injections of insulin.
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135. Diabetes Mellitus
mellitus is a common disorder resulting from defects in action, insulin production, or both. Insulin, a secreted by the pancreas, helps the body use and store produced during the digestion of food. Characterized by , symptoms of diabetes include frequent urination, increased thirst, , weight loss, blurred vision, , and, occasionally, coma. Uncontrolled hyperglycemia over time damages the eyes, nerves, blood vessels, kidneys, and heart, causing organ dysfunction and failure. A number of risk factors are attributed to the of diabetes, including family history, age, ethnicity, and characteristics, as well as , lifestyle, , and clinical factors.
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136. Diarrhea
Diarrhea, a condition that has a major impact on global health, is highly correlated with nutritional status. It is an important area of focus due not only to its high worldwide and health costs, but also because it can be significantly reduced by appropriate interventions and treatment.
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137. Diarrhea Diet
A diarrhea diet is used to help alleviate diarrhea, a condition characterized by unusually frequent bowel movements and excessive evacuations of watery stools.
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138. Diet
The term refers to a person's pattern of eating and drinking. Diet is influenced by many factors, including income, culture, religion, geographic location, and lifestyle. A balanced diet contains food from several food groups and supplies the body with the and essential it needs (as defined by the Food Guide Pyramid and ).
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139. Diet Drugs
Diet drugs are medications that may help obese people lose weight when the drugs are used together with a program of diet and exercise. Historically, many drugs have been used as weight loss aids, and some ineffective products have been marketed with claims of helping in a program of weight loss.
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140. Dietary Assessment
A dietary assessment is a comprehensive evaluation of a person's food intake. It is one of four parts of a assessment done in a setting. These four parameters of assessment include: (1) an assessment of (weight, height, weight-to-height ratio, head circumference, , etc.); (2) dietary assessment, which includes a history or food frequency analysis; (3) a physical examination with a medical history; and (4) exams or blood/urine tests.
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141. Dietary Cholesterol
Cholesterol is a soft, white, waxy substance found in the lipids of the bloodstream and in the cells of the body. There are two sources of cholesterol. The first is the body, mainly the liver, which produces typically
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142. Dietary Guidelines
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans are the foundation of national nutrition policy for the United States. They are designed to help Americans make food choices that promote health and reduce the risk of disease. The guidelines are published jointly by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). The first set of guidelines was published as in 1980. Since then, an advisory committee has been appointed every five years to review and revise the guidelines based on the latest research in nutrition and health.
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143. Dietary Guidelines
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans are the foundation of national policy for the United States. They are designed to help Americans make food choices that promote health and reduce the risk of disease. The guidelines are published jointly by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). The first set of guidelines was published as in 1980. Since then, an advisory committee has been appointed every five years to review and revise the guidelines based on the latest research in nutrition and health.
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144. Dietary Reference Intakes
Dietary reference intakes (DRI) are a set of reference values for and other nutrients important to human health. DRIs provide guidance about the appropriate amount of each nutrient that should be consumed based on American and Canadian diets. DRIs are specific to age group, gender, and for women, reproductive status.
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145. Dietary Reference Intakes
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are a set of reference values. They are used to help people select healthful diets, set national policy, and establish safe upper limits of intake. DRIs include four sets of nutrient standards: Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), Adequate Intake (AI), and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). Starting in the mid-1990s, DRIs began to replace RDAs and Recommended Nutrient Intakes for Canadians, which had been the standards for the United States and for Canada, respectively.
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146. Dietary Supplements
In the United States, dietary supplements are defined by the 1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act as products that are not used exclusively as food, but are intended to be consumed in addition to an individual’s diet. The law states that dietary supplements are taken by mouth and contain.
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147. Dietary Supplements
The demand for dietary supplements in the United States catapulted what was once a cottage industry into a $14 billion per year business in the year 2000. In 1994, the U.S. Congress formally defined the term as a product taken by mouth that contains a "dietary ingredient" intended to supplement the . The dietary ingredients in these products may include , , herbs, , , organ tissues, glandulars, and . Dietary supplements can also be extracts or concentrates, and may be found in many forms, such as tablets, capsules, liquids, or powders.
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148. Dietary Trends, American
Americans have become more aware of what they eat, and how it might affect their health. Concerns about the safety of the food supply are on the rise, and increasing nutritional awareness has led to an increase in vegetarian, organic, and health-food options in supermarkets. "Lite" food is in, and indulgence is out. But are Americans practicing what they preach? A closer look at American dietary trends reveals that parts of the American are still lacking in nutritional quality, despite consumer demand for healthier options.
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149. Dietary Trends, International
What foods an individual eats is affected by the ability to access foods. Economic status, geography, and politics have influenced the diets of people throughout history. Poverty is linked to , while economic growth and a rise in population pose new nutritional problems. Ironically, diets high in complex and in poor economic times give way to consumption of foods high in sugars and when economic conditions improve.
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150. Dietetic Technician, Registered (DTR)
A dietetic technician, registered (DTR) is a professional who is knowledgeable about food, , and therapy, which is the use of diet and nutrition in the treatment of diseases. A person seeking DTR credentials must complete a two-year associate's degree in an accredited dietetic technician (DT) program, a minimum of 450 hours of supervised practice experience (gained under the direction of an accredited DT program), and successfully complete the national registration examination for DTR.
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151. Dietetics
Dietetics is the study of food, food science, and nutrition, and of the interactions of food and in people and populations. It can also refer to the management of food service and the provision of health guidance in a variety of settings, including hospitals, nursing homes, health departments, clinics, and in private practice.
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152. Dieting
The term refers to restrictive eating or nutritional remedies for conditions such as iron-deficiency , diseases, pernicious anemia, , , or . Someone can be on a heart-healthy that encourages the consumption of reasonable amounts of whole grains and fresh fruits, vegetables, beans, and fish, but limits foods high in and sodium, or one can be on a weight loss diet. Examples of weight loss diets include: the Atkins New Diet Revolution, the Calories Don't Count Diet, the Protein Power Diet, the Carbohydrate Addict's Diet, and Weight Watchers. There is a lack of research, however, on whether these diets (except for Weight Watchers) are helpful, especially over the long term (defined as two to five years from the date of weight loss).
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153. Dietitian
A dietitian is a professional nutritionist—an educated food and specialist who is qualified by training and examination to evaluate people's nutritional health and needs. Most dietitians are registered and are referred to as RDs. To become an RD, a person must earn an undergraduate degree in nutrition, food science, or food management, including courses in several other related subjects (chemistry, anatomy and , management, psychology, etc.); complete a 900-hour ; pass a national exam administered by the Commission on Dietetic Registration (the credentialing arm of the American Dietetic Association), and maintain up-to-date knowledge and registration by participating in required continuing education activities, such as attending workshops, doing research, taking courses, or writing professional papers.
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154. Dietwatch
Dietwatch is an online weight loss program that focuses on helping dieters lose weight at a moderate, healthy pace through healthy eating, regular exercise, and motivational support.
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155. Digestion and Absorption
Digestion is the breakdown of food into smaller particles or individual . It is accomplished through six basic processes, with the help of several body fluids—particularly digestive juices that are made up of compounds such as saliva, mucus, , hydrochloric acid, bicarbonate, and .
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156. Digestive Diseases
Digestive diseases, also called gastrointestinal diseases, are the diseases that affect the digestive system, which consists of the organs and pathways and processes responsible for processing food in the body.
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157. Disaster Relief Organizations
Natural disasters, as well as some human-caused disasters, lead to human suffering and create needs that the victims cannot alleviate without assistance. Examples of disasters include hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, earthquakes, drought, blizzards, , war, fire, volcanic eruption, a building collapse, or a transportation wreck. When any such disaster strikes, a variety of international organizations offer relief to the affected country. Each organization has different objectives, expertise, and resources to offer, and several hundred may become involved in a single major disaster. International disaster relief on such a large scale must be properly coordinated to avoid further chaos and confusion both during and after the disaster.
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158. Diuretics and Diets
Diuretics are a group of drugs given to help the body eliminate excess fluid through the kidneys in order to treat (high blood pressure), kidney and liver disorders, glaucoma, congestive heart failure (CHF), and idiopathic intracranial hypertension (pseudotumor cerebri), a condition characterized by increased fluid pressure within the blood vessels supplying the brain.
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159. Diverticular Disease Diet
A diverticular disease diet is a diet that increases dietary to recommended levels.
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160. Dr. Feingold Diet
The Dr. Feingold diet is a diet that eliminates many different forms of additives and other compounds from the diet. It is intended to reduce the symptoms of Attention Deficit Disorder and Attention Deficit Disorder. Many proponents of the diet suggest that it can be used to improve other common problems as well.
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161. Dr. Phil's Diet
Dr. Phil’s diet is named for Dr. Phillip C. McGraw, Ph.D., the psychologist and life strategist seen on syndicated television. Popularly known as “Dr. Phil’ he developed a line of “Shape Up!’ weight loss products and simultaneously developed and published a book titled “The Ultimate Weight Loss Solution: The 7 Keys to Weight Loss Freedom.”
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162. Dyspepsia
Dyspepsia is gastric upset due to the inability to digest one’s food.
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163. Eating disorders
Eating disorders are psychiatric illnesses that result in abnormal eating patterns that have a negative effect on health.
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164. Eating Disorders
Eating disorders affect both the mind and the body. Although deviant eating patterns have been reported throughout history, eating disorders were first identified as medical conditions by the British physician William Gull in 1873. The of eating disorders increased substantially throughout the twentieth century, and in 1980 the American Psychiatric Association formally classified these conditions as mental illnesses.
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165. Eating Disturbances
An eating disturbance shares many similar characteristics with eating disorders, but is less severe in scope. As a result, many abnormal dietary patterns and behaviors, such as eating, excessive exercising, weight cycling, and dieting may involve many of the same attitudes and impulses as eating disorders, though they do not meet the clinical criteria for diagnosis.
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166. Eating for Life
Eating for Life refers to a diet and nutrition plan that recommends eating six small, low-fat meals daily, popularized in the 2003 book , written by Bill Phillips.
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167. Eating Habits
The term (or ) refers to why and how people eat, which foods they eat, and with whom they eat, as well as the ways people obtain, store, use, and discard food. Individual, social, cultural, religious, economic, environmental, and political factors all influence people's eating habits.
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168. Echinacea
Echinacea is a perennial plant native to North America that is farmed in both the United States and Europe for use in . Echinacea is a genus in the aster family containing nine plant species. Three species, , and are used in complementary and alternative medicine in the United States and Europe.
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169. eDiets
The eDiets.com website provides information on several diet programs, fitness regimens, as well as support from health professionals. The term e-diets may be used to describe any diet program found on the internet.
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170. Electrolytes
Electrolytes are ions that form when salts dissolve in or fluids. These ions have an electric charge. Positively charged ions are called cations. Negatively charged ions are called anions. Electrolytes are not evenly distributed within the body, and their uneven distribution allows many important metabolic reactions to occur. (Na ), Potassium (), (Ca2+), (Mg2+ ), chloride (Cl-), phosphate (HPO42-), bicarbonate (HCO3-), and Sulfate (SO4-) are important electrolytes in humans.
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171. Elimination diets
Elimination diets are diets in which people stop eating specific foods for a period and then challenge their body by adding the food back into their diet and evaluating how the body responds. Elimination diets are used to detect food allergies and food intolerances. They are not nutritionally balanced and are intended to be used only for diagnostic purposes.
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172. Emergency Nutrition Network
The Emergency Nutrition Network (ENN) is a network of humanitarian agencies and researchers that supports and facilitates activities that increase the effectiveness of emergency food and nutrition interventions. The planning for the ENN was done in 1995 at a meeting sponsored by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), and the network began operating in November 1996.
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173. Encopresis
Encopresis is defined as the repeated passage or leaking of feces in inappropriate places in a child over 4 years of age that is not caused by a physical illness or disability.
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174. Ephedra
Ephedra is a genus of plants found worldwide. One species, or Chinese ephedra, has a long history of use in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). In the late twentieth century, ephedra gained popularity as a weight-loss supplement. The herb can cause life-threatening side effects, and since April 2004, sale of products containing ephedra have been banned in the United States. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) ephedra is called ma huang.
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175. Ergogenic aids
Ergogenic aids are substances, foods, or training methods that enhance energy production, use or recovery and provide athletes with a competitive advantage.
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176. Ergogenic Aids
Ergogenic aids are dietary supplements intended to enhance athletic performance. Athletes often look for a "magic bullet" that can give them an advantage over their opponents. However, while they tend to be highly disciplined regarding training, they are not always careful in their use of dietary supplements. The important points about supplement usage include:
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177. Exchange System
Prior to the development of exchange lists in 1950, meal planning for persons in the United States with was chaotic, with no agreement among the major organizations involved with diabetes and . To solve this problem, the concept of "exchange," or "substitution," of similar foods was developed by the American Dietetic Association, the American Diabetes Association, and the U.S. Public Health Service. The goal was to develop an educational tool for persons with diabetes that would provide uniformity in meal planning and allow for the inclusion of a wider variety of foods.
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178. Exercise
More than 28 percent of Americans are completely (they engage in no physical activity), with an additional 60 percent being inadequately active (engaging in less than 30 minutes of activity per day). For those who strive to achieve and maintain a high quality of health, it must be recognized that physical activity is vital to optimal health. This is reaffirmed by numerous studies that have found an association between physical activity, health, longevity, and an improved quality of life. In addition, the number of deaths related to sedentary living or is approximately a half-million per year. Physical activity may impact quality of life in several ways: it can be used to improve self-image and self-esteem, physical , and health.
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179. Exercise Addiction
Individuals with an exercise addiction are characterized by their compulsive exercise behaviors, an overinvolvement in exercise, and the presence of an activity disorder—meaning they exercise at a duration, intensity, and frequency beyond that required for sport. A rigid schedule of intense exercise is maintained, accompanied by strong feelings of guilt when this schedule is violated. These individuals resist the temptation to lapse into nonexercise, and if they do lapse, the amount of exercise they partake in increases after the lapse. Exercise addicts will skip school or work to exercise, forgo social events to exercise, exercise even when they are ill or tired, and keep detailed journals of their workouts. In addition, exercise addiction can lead to disordered eating behaviors.
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180. Expanded Food Nutrition and Education Program
The Expanded Food Nutrition and Education Program (EFNEP), established in 1968, is funded by the United States Department of Agriculture. By providing grants to local communities, the program assists U.S. counties in developing programs to improve home and family life. EFNEP's purpose is to help economically and socially disadvantaged families improve their food practices and their . This may include advice on planning meals; selecting, purchasing, and preparing foods; and solving housekeeping problems (especially those involving storage and sanitation) that may interfere with proper food and nutrition management. EFNEP trains homemakers living in the community to be education and training facilitators, thereby advancing women and improving neighborhood networks.
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181. Fad Diets
Many fad diets defy logic, basic biochemistry, and even appetite appeal. They are popular because they promise quick results, are relatively easy to implement, and claim remarkable improvements in how their followers will look or feel. Unfortunately, the one thing most fad diets have in common is that they seldom promote sound weight loss. More important, they only work short-term. As many as 95% of people who lose weight gain it back within five years. It is not surprising that nearly 25% of Americans are confused when it comes to information about dieting.
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182. Fad Diets
Americans are obsessed with dieting. They willingly try the latest appearing in popular magazines, discussed on talk shows, and displayed on the shelves of their local bookstore. Many fad diets defy logic, basic biochemistry, and even appetite appeal. They are popular because they promise quick results, are relatively easy to implement, and claim remarkable improvements in how their followers will look or feel. Unfortunately, the one thing most fad diets have in common is that they seldom promote sound weight loss. More important, they only work short-term. As many as 95 percent of people who lose weight gain it back within five years. It is not surprising that nearly 25 percent of Americans are confused when it comes to information about dieting.
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183. Failure to Thrive
is a term used to describe infants and young children who are not growing or are losing weight due to , neglect, abuse, or medical conditions. In failure to thrive, the child may have a low body weight (below the third percentile for the child's age), a low height for age, or a small head circumference. A child with failure to thrive is not eating or being offered enough to meet his or her nutritional needs. Besides impaired growth, other symptoms include tiredness, sleeplessness, irritability, lethargy, resistance to eating, vomiting, and problems with elimination. The child may be suffering from an illness, medical condition, or recurring infections; taking medications; or come from a poor, distressed, or socially isolated family. To attain normal growth levels, a child with this condition requires from 1.5 to 2 times the normal amount of calories.
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184. Famine
Famine is the culmination of a long process, typically covering two or more crop seasons, in which increasing numbers of people lose their access to food. Although early detection seems highly possible, the origins of famine are unclear, and early response is therefore rare. Famine is distinct from generalized hunger, , or undernourishment. It is a more dramatic and exceptional event that triggers institutional responses.
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185. Fast Foods
Fast foods are relatively inexpensive foods that are prepared and served quickly. The industry had its beginnings around the mid-twentieth century, and it grew tremendously during the last three decades of the twentieth century. Growth of the fast-food industry is projected to be even greater outside the United States during the twenty-first century.
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186. Fasting
The term refers to voluntarily or involuntarily going without food. A person may fast voluntarily because of an , as a dietary practice related to religious , or for health reasons, such as weight loss or internal cleansing. There are, however, no nutritional benefits to fasting.
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187. Fat Flush Diet
The fat flush diet is a combination weight-loss and detoxification (’detox’) or cleansing diet, formulated by the well-known nutritionist Ann Louise Gittleman. It is a low-carbohydrate, restricted-calorie diet, which is designed to boost decrease retention, and promote loss of fat.
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188. Fat Replacers
Fat replacers, also called fat substitutes, are substances that take the place of all or some of the fat in a food and yet give the food a taste, texture, and mouth feel similar to the original full-fat food.
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189. Fat Smash Diet
The fat smash diet is a 90-day, four-phase weight-loss program that is designed to ’smash’ bad habits and make permanent lifestyle changes in eating and physical activity.
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190. Fat Substitutes
Since the late 1980s, fat-free and reduced-fat foods have become widely available. While not all new products survive the competitive marketplace, thousands of new reduced-fat and fat-free products have been introduced each year since 1990.
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191. Fats
Fats are also known as lipids. A lipid is a substance that is poorly soluble or insoluble in The term ’dietary fat’ encompasses many different types of fat. Over 90% of dietary fats are called triacylglycerols or Other dietary fats include cholesterol.
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192. Fats
Lipids are organic substances consisting mostly of carbons and hydrogen . They are hydrophobic, which means that they have little or no affinity to water. All lipids are soluble (or dissolvable) in nonpolar solvents, such as ether, alcohol, and gasoline. There are three families of lipids: (1) fats, (2) phospholipids, and (3) steroids.
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193. Female Athlete Triad
The female athlete triad is a common nutritional disorder among female athletes caused by the drive of girls and women to be unrealistically thin in an attempt to improve performance. The disorder is most common in sports judged by build (e.g., gymnastics, diving, figure skating), sports with a weight classification (e.g., light-weight crew), and endurance sports (e.g., distance running). It is characterized by three interrelated conditions: (1) disordered eating, such as bingeing, purging, or severe restriction; (2) amenorrhea, or the absence of normal menstrual periods; and (3) osteoporosis, a condition marked by reduced bone density.
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194. Fen-Phen
Fen-Phen was an anti-obesity regimen composed of fenfluramine or the closely related drug dexfenflur-amine (marketed under the brand name Redux) and phentermine (sold under several brand names including Adipex-P, Anoxine-AM, Fastin, Ionamin. Obe-phen, Obermine, Obestin-30 and Phentrol). The combination was found to cause damage to heart valves, and fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine were removed from the United States market in 1997.
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195. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a birth defect caused by a mother's alcohol intake during pregnancy. The symptoms of FAS are mental retardation, poor growth, facial defects, and behavioral problems. It is one of the leading causes of mental retardation in children. The effects are lifelong. Fetal alcohol effects (FAE) is a less severe set of the same symptoms. FAS is found in infants of all races and ethnic groups. Since it is not known how much alcohol a pregnant woman must drink to cause the syndrome, it is recommended that women not drink alcohol at all during pregnancy.
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196. Fiber
Fiber is found only in foods of plant origin. It occurs in the skins, seeds, leaves and roots of fruits and vegetables, and in the germ and bran layers of grains. Pectins, lignans, cellulose, gums and mucilages are all different forms of fiber found in these foods. Because humans lack the digestive enzymes to break down fiber, it passes through the digestive tract largely unchanged.
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197. Fiber
Fiber, which is found in all plant-based foods, is composed of a group of compounds that makes up the framework of plants. Although fiber cannot be digested, it is an essential for good health. The health benefits of a rich in fiber include lower and a reduced risk of and certain cancers. Also referred to as roughage, fiber is made up of many compounds, mostly . It can be found in a variety of foods, including wheat, potatoes, and certain fruits and vegetables. Although the recommended amount of fiber is 20 to 35 grams a day, the average American consumes only 12 to 15 grams on a daily basis. Asians, on average, consume three times as much fiber as Americans do.
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198. Fit for Life Diet
Fit for Life is a combination diet diet that emphasizes eating foods in the correct combination and avoiding the wrong combinations of foods rather than counting calories or controlling portion size. Several aspects of this diet have been disputed by dietitians and nutritionists.
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199. Flaxseed
Flaxseed is the seed of the plant It is a rich source of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), an essential nutrient in the human diet. Flaxseed has health and possibly medical benefits. Flaxseed oil is a vegetable oil derived from pressed flaxseed. Flaxseed.
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200. Fluoride
Fluoride is a naturally occurring element found in and food. It is important for the development of strong bones and teeth.
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201. Folate
Folate is a naturally occurring water-soluble vitamin that the body needs to remain healthy. Folic acid is a stable synthetic form of folate that is found in dietary supplements and is added to fortified foods such as flour and cereal. Humans cannot make folate or folic acid, so they must get it from foods in their diet or as a dietary supplement Folic acid and folate are both converted into an active form in that the body can use, although folic acid is more easily used (more bioavail-able) in the body. Folic acid is also called vitamin
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202. Food Additives
The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) defines food additives as ’any substance, the intended use of which results or may reasonably be expected to result, directly or indirectly, in its becoming a component or otherwise affecting the characteristics of any food.’ In other words, an additive is any substance that is added to food.
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203. Food Aid for Development and the World Food Programme
Food aid has been a key to global agricultural development and trade policy since the end of World War II. Food aid creates agricultural development and income growth in poor nations, and thus creates future markets for donor countries, according to Christopher Barrett. However, food aid may be inflationary because it increases demand and costs for nonfood items in the recipient countries.
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204. Food Allergies
Food allergies are the body’s response to proteins found in food. For more than 12 million Americans alone, food allergy is a significant medical condition. All food contains proteins that enter the body when the food is eaten, or in some cases if it is touched. Allergic reaction occurs when the body reacts to these proteins as if they were harmful, and for individuals with food allergy, the offending food is harmful.
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205. Food and Agricultural Organization
The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) is one of the largest specialized agencies of the United Nations. Founded in 1945, it is responsible for raising levels of and standards of living, increasing agricultural productivity, and improving rural living conditions throughout the world. The FAO is an international organization that has 183 member countries, plus one member organization, the European Community. The FAO Conference, which meets every two years, is the governing body of the FAO.
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206. Food Contamination
Food contamination refers to foods that are spoiled or tainted because they either contain microorganisms, such as bacteria or parasites, or toxic substances that make them unfit for consumption.
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207. Food Guide Pyramid
The Food Guide Pyramid is a graphic representation of a food guide that was developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) in the 1980s. Food guides are tools designed to help people select healthful diets. The USDA has been developing food guides since 1916, and recommendations have changed over the years due to emerging knowledge about needs and the relationships between and health, changing economic conditions (such as the Great Depression in the 1930s), and changing lifestyles.
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208. Food Insecurity
Millions of people worldwide suffer from hunger and . A major factor contributing to this international problem is This condition exists when people lack sustainable physical or economic access to enough safe, nutritious, and socially acceptable food for a healthy and productive life. Food insecurity may be , seasonal, or temporary, and it may occur at the household, regional, or national level.
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209. Food Labeling
Food labeling tells consumers about the, ingredients, and nutritional composition of packaged food for sale. Labels may also contain information about the conditions under which the food was produced. In the United States, food labeling is regulated by several federal agencies. Some labeling information is mandatory, while others is voluntary.
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210. Food Labels
The quality and safety of foods are a worldwide concern and have been a societal issue since the beginning of civilization. In the United States, very complex laws and regulations have been developed to address food safety concerns. These laws and regulations are designed not only to insure that food is safe to eat, but also to insure that the product label provides information consumers need to make educated food-purchasing decisions.
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211. Food Poisoning
Food poisoning comes from eating food or drinking that is the contaminated with a virus, bacterium, parasite, or chemical that causes illness. It is also called gastroenteritis.
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212. Food Safety
Food safety involves the safe handling of food from the time it is grown, packaged, distributed, and prepared to prevent foodborne illnesses. Food safety is the responsibility of those who handle and prepare food commercially for delivery to consumers and of consumers who prepare and eat food in their homes.
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213. Food Safety
One of the many luxuries Americans enjoy is access to the safest and most abundant food supply in the world. This stems from many advances and improvements in food safety, sanitation, and crop production that reduce the chance of food-safety problems, including food-borne illness, pesticide contamination, or infectious disease. There are many reasons why food safety has become an issue. First, medical advances have made it possible for people to live longer, creating an aging population more susceptible to disease. Second, labor in the food industry is more diverse and less skilled. Learning barriers, personnel turnover, and limited food-preparation skills create challenges in training. Third, the U.S. food supply has expanded globally, and many types of food come from areas where food safety standards are less stringent than those in the United States. Other concerns for food safety stem from terrorist threats, food irradiation, and genetically modified foods.
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214. Food Sensitivities
Food sensitivity, also known as food intolerance, can be defined as a reproducible, adverse reaction to a food, or food ingredient, at a dose tolerated by most people. It is technically described as non-allergenic food hypersensitivity as it does not involve the immune system, unlike in cases of food allergy where an immune response is involved. Typically the features of food sensitivity are less severe and take a longer time to manifest, compared with food allergy where symptoms can be potentially life-threatening and occur soon after ingestion.
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215. Fortification
is the addition of to foods to enhance their nutritional value. , on the other hand, is the addition of nutrients to foods to restore nutrients lost during processing. Examples of fortification include the addition of and to grain products, to juices, iodine to salt, and iron to infant formulas.
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216. French Paradox
The French Paradox refers to the low rate of (CHD) in France despite the diet being rich in saturated fat.
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217. French Paradox
The term refers to the observation that although the French eat similar amounts of high-fat foods, exercise less, and smoke more than Americans, they appear to have a markedly lower mortality rate from . Medical experts generally agree that a low-fat , exercise, and not smoking minimize the risk of heart attacks, which makes this paradox difficult to understand. Studies suggest that one of the reasons the French have a lower rate of heart disease may be their regular consumption of red wine.
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218. Frozen-Food Diet
Frozen-food diets rely on packaged frozen foods for weight loss and weight control that are based on standardized portions, as well as for convenience and saving time.
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219. Fructose Intolerance
Fructose intolerance is a condition where the body has difficult digesting and using fructose and fructose-containing foods. It is treated by complete elimination of fructose and sucrose from the diet.
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220. Fruitarian diet
A fruitarian diet is a strict form of a vegetarian diet that is generally limited to eating fresh fruits.
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221. Functional Foods
are foods that provide health benefits beyond basic due to certain physiologically active components, which may or may not have been manipulated or modified to enhance their bioactivity. These foods may help prevent disease, reduce the risk of developing disease, or enhance health. Consumer interest in functional foods increased during the late twentieth century as people's interest in achieving and maintaining good health increased. Health-conscious consumers have become aware of the health benefits associated with specific foods and are incorporating elements such as , , and soy into their diets. Rapid advances in food science and technology, an aging population, the rapid rise in health care costs, and changing government marketing and labeling regulations have also had an impact on the functional foods market.
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222. Funk, Casimir
223. Gallstones
Gallstones are solid material that forms in the gallbladder or bile ducts. They are made of cholesterol, bilirubin, and and range in size from a grain of sand to a golf ball. A single stone may be present, or they may exist in large numbers. Gallstones are also called choleliths.
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224. Gastroesophageal reflux disease
GERD, or gastroesophageal reflux disease, occurs when gastric juice from the stomach backs up into the bottom of the esophagus and causes irritation, inflammation or erosion of the cells lining the esophagus. GERD is sometimes called acid reflux disease.
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225. Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS)
In 1959, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) established a list of seven hundred food substances that were exempt from the then new requirement that manufacturers test before putting them on the market. The Generally Recognized as Safe, or GRAS, list acknowledged that many additives had existing scientific evidence of long and safe use in food. Among the additives on the list are sugar, salt, spices, and . Manufacturers can petition for GRAS status for new additives if the substances meet the criteria cited above. GRAS list additives are continually reevaluated based on current scientific evidence.
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226. Genetically Modified Foods
modification employs recombinant (rDNA) technology to alter the of , plants, and animals. Genetic modification is also called biotechnology, gene splicing, recombinant DNA technology, or genetic engineering. Contemporary genetic modification was developed in the 1970s and essentially transfers genetic material from one organism to another. The modification of organisms has existed for centuries in the form of plant-breeding techniques (such as cross-fertilization) used to produce desired traits. With genetic modification, however, isolated genes are inserted into plants for a desired trait with a much quicker result than occurs when cross-breeding plants, which can take years. These isolated genes do not have to come from similar species in order to be functional; theoretically, genes can be transferred among all microorganisms, plants, and animals.
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227. Giardiasis
Giardiasis is a communicable gastrointestinal disease characterized by acute diarrhea. It is caused by a parasite, also known as Giardiasis is the most common water-borne infection of the human intestine worldwide, affecting as many as 200 million people each year. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), there were 90 major community outbreaks of giardiasis in the United States between 1964 and 1984, and 34 major outbreaks since 1985.
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228. Ginkgo biloba
Ginkgo biloba is an herbal dietary supplement made from the leaves of the tree
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229. Ginseng
Ginseng refers to two closely related herbs of the genus . Asian ginseng and American ginseng have traditionally been used for healing. Asian ginseng is also known as Korean red ginseng, Chinese ginseng, Japanese ginseng, ginseng radix, ninjin, sang, and ren shen. American ginseng is also known as Canadian ginseng, North American ginseng, Ontario ginseng, Wisconsin ginseng, red berry, sang, and ren shen. Siberian ginseng is a plant with different properties that belongs to a completely different genus. Ginseng in this entry refers only to Asian and American ginseng of the genus
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230. Glisson, Francis
231. Global Database on National Nutrition Policies and Programmes
Hunger and occur throughout the world, though the knowledge and resources exist to eliminate them. The challenge lies in changing political will, developing realistic policies, and taking determined actions both nationally and internationally. These are the basic beliefs of the Global Database on National Nutrition Policies and Programmes (GDNNPP). GDNNPP was created by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1995 to monitor and evaluate the progress of implementation of the 1992 World Declaration and Plan of Action for Nutrition, which states that all people should have access to safe and nutritious food and be free from hunger.
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232. Glossary
233. Glucosamine
Glucosamine is a natural compound found in the human body, specifically an amino monosaccharide (a nitrogen-containing sugar). It is thought to possibly play a role in cartilage formation and repair and to perhaps have an anti-inflammatory affect within humans.
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234. Gluten-free diet
A gluten-free diet is a diet that is completely free of gluten, which is a generic term for storage proteins found in grains. In (also referred to as celiac sprue), persons develop an inflammatory immune system response to gluten that results in damage to the small intestine, which inhibits absorption of nutrients. Some persons also develop dermatitis her-petiformis, an itchy and blistering skin condition. Because of gluten intolerance, affected persons must completely avoid foods that contain gluten.
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235. Glycemic Index
The glycemic index (GI) is a ranking of foods individuals with use to manage their disease. This ranking is based on the rate carbohydrates affect blood levels relative to glucose or white bread. Generally, the glycemic index is calculated by measuring blood glucose levels following the ingestion of a carbohydrate. This blood glucose value is compared to the blood glucose value acquired following an equal carbohydrate dose of glucose or white bread. Glucose is absorbed into the bloodstream faster than any other carbohydrate, and is thus given the value of 100. Other carbohydrates are given a number relative to glucose. Foods with low GI indices are released into the bloodstream at a slower rate than high GI foods.
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236. Glycemic index diets
Glycemic index diets rank carbohydrates based on their ability to affect blood glucose (sugar) levels. These diets generally consider foods high in carbohydrates, such as bread, sugar, and pasta, as bad and low carbohydrate foods, such as meat, fish, and dairy products, as good.
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237. Goiter
238. Goldberger, Joseph
239. Gout diet
A gout diet is a nutritional routine that includes eating foods low in purines to help reduce the occur-ance and severity of gout attacks. Gout is a form of arthritis with symptoms of sudden and severe pain, redness, and tenderness in joints.
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240. Graham, Sylvester
241. Grapefruit diet
There are several diets or approaches to dieting that have been referred to as the “grapefruit diet.” The first two are that have been circulating via chain letters, photocopies, faxes, and e-mail since the 1930s. The third form might be better described as the regular use of grapefruit or grapefruit juice as part of a general approach to weight reduction. It received considerable attention following the 2004 publication of a study conducted at the Scripps Clinic in California.
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242. Grazing
The term grazing is used to describe the eating of small, frequent meals, or mini-meals, throughout the day, typically every three to four hours. Grazing does not mean constantly eating snack foods, but rather is a concept of consuming one's daily food intake, including all necessary , over five or six (or more) small meals, rather than two or three large ones. Frequent eating can be a great way to maintain one's level. This is also a beneficial eating pattern for individuals with problems such as and . Without a focus on healthy choices, however, grazing can become an easy way to overeat, and could possibly lead to weight gain.
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243. Greek and Middle Eastern diet
The “Mediterranean diet” gained much recognition and worldwide interest in the 1990s as a model for healthful eating habits. The diet is based on the traditional dietary patterns of Crete, a Greek island, and other parts of Greece and southern Italy. The diet has become a popular area of study due to observations made in 1960 of low incidences of chronic disease and high life-expectancy rates attributed to the populations who consumed a traditional Mediterranean diet. This healthful diet model goes far beyond the use of particular ingredients and recipes. It attains its full meaning in the context of climate, geography, customs, and the way of life of Mediterranean peoples.
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244. Greeks and Middle Easterners, Diet of
The "Mediterranean " gained much recognition and worldwide interest in the 1990s as a model for healthful eating habits. The diet is based on the traditional dietary patterns of Crete, a Greek island, and other parts of Greece and southern Italy. The diet has become a popular area of study due to observations made in 1960 of low incidences of disease and high life-expectancy rates attributed to the populations who consumed a traditional Mediterranean diet. This healthful diet model goes far beyond the use of particular ingredients and recipes. It attains its full meaning in the context of climate, geography, customs, and the way of life of Mediterranean peoples.
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245. Green tea
Green tea is made of the lightly steamed and then dried leaf of the shrub . When processed in this way, the leaves retain many of the chemical properties that are thought to provide health benefits. Green tea extract is a concentrated form of green tea that is sold as a dietary supplement. It usually comes in capsules, but sometimes is packaged as a liquid.
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246. Growth Charts
Growth charts are used by pediatricians, dietitians, nurses, and parents to assess the growth of infants, children, and adolescents. In the United States, growth charts are created by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and assess weight, height, and (BMI). Each chart consists of a series of percentile curves that are used to compare the body measurements of children to others their age and gender. For example, a five-year-old girl whose weight falls in the 25th percentile weighs the same as or more than 25 percent of other five-year-old girls—and less than 75 percent of other five-year-old girls.
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247. Growth Hormone
Human growth hormone (HGH) stimulates the growth of bones and affects the of , , and . It is secreted by the , which is located in the brain. Whereas HGH is produced in the body, genetic engineering has resulted in the development of recombinant human growth hormone (rHGH), which is used to treat stunted growth in children. Bovine somatotropin (BST) is a naturally occurring protein hormone in cows that increases milk production when administered as a supplement. BST is not biologically active in humans and is broken down into inactive and peptides when consumed. Therefore, milk from cows treated with BST is believed to be as safe and nutritious as milk from untreated cows.
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248. Half Title Page
No description given
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249. Hamptons Diet
The Hamptons diet is a low-carbohydrate, low-calorie diet that could be described as a cross between the and the . The originator of the Hamptons diet, Dr. Fred Pescatore, is the former associate medical director of the Atkins Center. He has himself described the Hamptons diet as “low-carb with a Mediterranean twist.” The diet focuses on eating healthy monosaturated , especially , found in fish and vegetables.
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250. Hay Diet
The Hay diet is named for the New York physician who created a plan that prohibited the consumption of starches and proteins during the same meal. William Howard Hay began developing the food-combining diet in 1904 to treat himself for medical conditions including a dilated heart. He lost 50 (22.7 kilograms) pounds in approximately three months and recovered from the conditions.
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251. Health
Health is a measure of quality of life that is difficult to define and measure. In the 1940s, the World Health Organization (WHO) defined health as a "state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." At the first International Conference on Health Promotion in Ottawa, Canada (1986), the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion built on the WHO's concept and further defined health as "a resource for everyday life ... a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capabilities." Good health enables one to function independently within a changing environment.
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252. Health Claims
As part of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 (NLEA), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) implemented regulations defining what terms may be used to describe the level of a in a food, as well as what claims could be made about the relationship between a nutrient or a food and the risk of a disease or health-related condition. Prior to the implementation of these regulations, there were no guidelines for food manufacturers to use when making statements about the nutritional value of a food product. Consequently, consumers had difficulty comparing foods based solely on the nutritional content of the products. The NLEA served to level the playing field for manufacturers of nutritionally focused food products by providing a consistent definition of claims to assist consumers when shopping for food products.
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253. Health Communication
Health communication is the discipline that studies and develops appropriate communication strategies to inform individuals and communities about ways to enhance health. It is used at all levels of disease prevention and health promotion and can contribute to improving health and delaying disease, disability, and death. Health communication can be used to: (1) improve patient-provider relationships, (2) assist individuals to search for and use reputable health information and services, (3) enable individuals to adhere to provider recommendations, (4) develop and evaluate public health messages and campaigns, (5) assess health images in the media, (6) and distribute information to those at risk.
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254. Health Education
Health education is the discipline dedicated to designing, implementing, and evaluating health programs and materials that improve the health of individuals, families, and communities. Health education is one of the tools of health promotion. A goal of health education is to provide individuals with the knowledge, skills, and motivation to make healthier choices. Health education takes place in a variety of settings, such as schools; health care facilities; businesses; nonprofit organizations; and local, state, and federal health agencies. A certified health education specialist (CHES) is a person who has met the standards of competence established by the National Commission for Health Education Credentialing and has successfully passed the CHES examination.
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255. Health Promotion
Achieving optimal health is not the sole responsibility of the individual. Health promotion enables individuals to improve their health and delay disease, disability, and death. Health-promoting activities include healthful eating, adequate physical activity, management, not smoking, and adequate sleep. On a societal level, health promotion focuses on achieving equity in health among all ethnic and socioeconomic groups. Health disparities can be reduced or eliminated by providing culturally relevant health information, programs, and services; improving access to health care; creating public policy that promotes health; creating healthy environments; and providing other opportunities for making healthy choices.
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256. Healthy Eating Index
plays a vital role in the prevention of diseases such as , , and . The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) is a measure of the overall quality of an individual's . It was developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to assess how well American diets comply with the and the
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257. Healthy Heart Diet
A healthy heart diet is an eating plan designed to keep blood cholesterol low and prevent the risk of heart disease. This is usually achieved by eating foods that are low in saturated fat, total fat, cholesterol, and . Some diets help people lower their cholesterol levels.
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258. Healthy People 2010 Report
In the mid-1970s, the United States government began to focus on national health issues, particularly disease prevention and health promotion. The first document to focus on the nation's health was the (1973). This was followed by the enactment of the which created the In 1979, this office produced the first Healthy People report, which focused on reducing mortality rates and increasing independence among older adults.
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259. Heart Disease
The heart, which is about the size of a human fist, is the body's largest, strongest, and most important muscle. The heart continuously pumps blood through the body, helps regulate and prolong health, and controls the flow (circulation) of blood to the lungs, organs, muscles, and tissues in the body.
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260. Heartburn
Heartburn is a burning sensation in the chest that can extend to the neck, throat, and face; it is worsened by bending or lying down. It is the primary symptom of gastroesophageal reflux, which is the movement of stomach acid into the esophagus. On rare occasions, it is due to gastritis (stomach lining inflammation).
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261. Hemorrhoids
Hemorrhoids, also called piles, refers to a condition in which the veins around the anus or rectum are swollen and inflamed. Dietary adjustments are known to help relieve hemorrhoids.
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262. Herbalife
Herbalife is a U.S. company—formally named Herbalife International—which sells weight-loss, weight management, personal care, health, food/dietary, and nutritional supplement products. The company uses network marketing, also called multi-level marketing, which is a type of marketing plan that uses direct marketing along with franchisers and/or independent contractors to sell its products. According to the company’s Website, “Herbalife’s innovative products have been developed by scientists, doctors and nutritionists with your personal wellness goals in mind.”
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263. High-Fat/Low-Carb Diets
All food is comprised of three essential components or fat, and carbohydrate. High-fat/low-carbohydrate or low-carb diets emphasize increased consumption of proteins and and a severe reduction of These diets are based on research that indicates high carbohydrate consumption increases levels of insulin in the blood. Insulin is a hormone that helps the body covert food into energy in the form of glucose or sugar. High insulin levels have been linked to medical conditions such as type II, cardiovascular disease, and obesity. These diseases are all part of a syndrome called Insulin Resistance Syndrome or Syndrome X.
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264. High-Fiber Diet
A high-fiber diet is a diet in which the individual consumes foods that meet or exceed the dietary reference intake (DRI) for dietary set by the United States Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academy of Sciences.
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265. High-Protein Diet
High diets are diets in which 20% or more of the total daily calories comes from proteins. A very high protein diet is one where 30% or more of the total daily calories comes from protein. By comparison, in the average American diet about 12–16% of calories come from protein.
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266. Hilton Head Metabolism Diet
The Hilton Head metabolism diet was created by Peter M. Miller, PhD, who believes that a dieter’s metabolism can be increased by eating five small meals a day and getting the correct amount and type exercise. This increase in metabolism will help allow the dieter to lose weight.
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267. Hispanic and Latino Diet
The United States Census Bureau defines as those who indicate their origin to be Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American (e.g., Dominican, Nicaraguan, Colombian) or other Hispanic origin. This designation is made independently of racial classification. According to the 2002 U.S. Census, 13.3% of the U.S. population (or over 37 million Americans) identified themselves as being of Hispanic origin. This number exceeds the number of non-Hispanic blacks, or African Americans, in the United States, making Hispanics the largest minority subpopulation within the nation. The three major subgroups that make up the Hispanic population are Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Cubans. By far the largest of these is the Mexican-American population, which represents at least twothirds of all Hispanics.
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268. Hispanics and Latinos, Diet of
The United States Census Bureau defines as those who indicate their origin to be Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American (e.g., Dominican, Nicaraguan, Colombian) or other Hispanic origin. This designation is made independently of racial classification. According to the 2002 U.S. Census, 13.3 percent of the U.S. population (or over 37 million Americans) identified themselves as being of Hispanic origin. This number exceeds the number of non-Hispanic blacks, or African Americans, in the United States, making Hispanics the largest minority subpopulation within the nation. The three major subgroups that make up the Hispanic population are Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Cubans. By far the largest of these is the Mexican-American population, which represents at least twothirds of all Hispanics.
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269. HIV/AIDS
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) was identified in 1983 by the French scientist Luc Montagier and his staff at the Pasteur Institute in Paris. Ever since that discovery, scientists have been searching for ways to treat those infected with HIV, and to produce a vaccine to prevent its spread. While new antiviral treatments have been developed, a vaccine has yet to be found. HIV causes AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), an unpredictable condition that may progress over many years and is characterized by a slow deterioration of the . Once an individual becomes infected (HIV has infected the target cells) it takes a week or more before the virus is spread throughout the body's blood and . The immune system responds by turning out HIV in about six to eighteen weeks. The progression of HIV infection to AIDS may take several years. In the initial period, prolonged (2–4 weeks) flu-like symptoms may appear. This is followed by an period (clinical latency) that may last ten or more years. When the immune system becomes further compromised, the patient may experience , caused by the reduced function of the immune system resulting in a plethora of nonspecific and variable signs and symptoms. The condition known as AIDS is marked by severe compromise of the immune system and the presence of one or more opportunistic infections. Some clinical signs and symptoms may include sweating, diarrhea, malaise (feeling tired), anorexia (loss of appetite), weight loss, wasting (loss of muscle tissue), chest pain, swelling of the , infections, disorders, body-fat accumulations, and increased blood fats. In addition to disease-induced signs and symptoms, medications used to treat HIV/AIDS may produce additional signs and symptoms.
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270. Hollywood Diet
The Hollywood diet products are intended to produce extreme weight loss in a very short time. The Hollywood diet 30 Day Miracle Program is intended to allow dieters to lose weight over the course of a month by using various Hollywood diet products combined with healthy living strategies.
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271. Homelessness
Homelessness is a global problem. According to a 1996 United Nations report, 500 million people worldwide were homeless or residing in low-quality housing and unsanitary conditions in 1995. The number of homeless continues to rise, however, and quantifying this population is difficult. Most homelessness rates are reported by service providers, and countries with the best-developed service systems will therefore report the highest number of homeless, a condition referred to as the service-systems paradox. Various other problems, such as double-counts, overcounts, the problem of mobility, and hidden homelessness also affect estimates.
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272. Hoodia
Hoodia is a genus of desert plants containing 13 species. One species, , is marketed in the United States as a weight-loss supplement. In this entry, hoodia refers only to .
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273. Hunger
Hunger is the drive to find and eat food. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), hunger is the world's major health risk. Globally, one in three people suffer from hunger, which is a result of a lack of food security. Food insecurity means people do not have access at all times to nutritionally adequate food. There are three dimensions to food insecurity: a lack of (1) purchasing power (lack of money or resources), (2) accessibility (ability to get food), and (3) availability (amount of food). In the United States, hunger is caused by poverty, whereas in developing countries it is caused by poverty, war, civil unrest, or an undeveloped economy.
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274. Hyperactivity and Sugar
Hyperactivity is behavior characterized by over-activity, impulsivity, distractibility, and decreased attention span. A popular but controversial belief is that children are more likely to be hyperactive if they eat sugar.
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275. Hyperglycemia
Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar, is the result of either too little or of the body's inefficient use of insulin. Indicators of hyperglycemia include frequent urination, thirst, high levels of sugar in the urine, and high blood sugar. Failure to address hyperglycemia results in and . Over the long term, hyperglycemia causes , foot problems, blindness, kidney disease, and nerve damage.
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276. Hyperlipidemia
Hyperlipidemia, also known as hyperlipoproteinemia or dyslipidemia, is an elevation of lipid levels () in the bloodstream. These lipids include cholesterol, cholesterol compounds, phospholipids and , all carried in the blood as part of large molecules called lipoproteins.
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277. Hypertension
Hypertension is the medical term for high blood pressure. Each time the heartbeats, it forces blood into the arteries. Blood pressure is the force created when blood moving through the body’s arteries pushes against the artery walls. Arteries are the blood vessels that carry blood from the heart throughout the body. Though many factors can cause hypertension, diet plays a major role in controlling high blood pressure.
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278. Hypertension
is the force with which blood pushes against the walls as it travels through the body. Like air in a balloon, blood fills arteries to a certain capacity—and just as too much air pressure can cause damage to a balloon, too much blood pressure can harm healthy arteries. Blood pressure is measured by two numbers—systolic pressure and diastolic pressure. Systolic pressure measures cardiac output and refers to the pressure in the arterial system at its highest. Diastolic pressure measures peripheral resistance and refers to arterial pressure at its lowest. Blood pressure is normally measured at the brachial artery with a sphygmomanometer (pressure cuff) in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) and given as systolic over diastolic pressure.
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279. Hypertriglyceridemia
Hypertriglyceridemia is an elevation of triglyceride levels in the bloodstream.
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280. Hypoglycemia
Hypoglycemia, or abnormally low blood sugar, is caused by the impaired response (or failure) of the liver to release as blood sugar levels decrease. The imbalance in the rate of glucose released from the liver and its use by other body tissues can result in the following hypoglycemic symptoms: hunger, nervousness, dizziness, confusion, sleepiness, difficulty speaking, feeling anxious or weak, irritability, sweating, loss of consciousness, and increased . In diabetic individuals, too much , limited or delayed food intake, a sudden increase in exercise, and excessive alcohol ingestion cause however, occurs about four hours after a meal. The cause is unknown, but experts speculate that deficiencies in the release of glucagon ( released by the pancreas to increase blood glucose levels) and sensitivity to epinephrine (hormone released by the adrenal glands) contribute to hypoglycemia.
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281. Illnesses, Food-Borne
Food-borne illness, often called , is caused by or certain chemicals present in ingested food. , , molds, worms, and protozoa that cause disease are all pathogens, though there are also harmless and beneficial bacteria that are used to make yogurt and cheese. Some chemicals that cause food-borne illness are natural components of foods, while others may be accidentally added during production and processing, either through carelessness or pollution. The main causes of food-borne illness are bacterial (66%), chemical (26%), viral (4%) and (4%).
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282. Immune System
The is made up of cells, tissues, organs, and processes that identify a substance as abnormal or foreign and prevent it from harming the body. Primary defenses include the , but skin, , normal , , and also provide protection. During times of and , immune function may be decreased, meaning that susceptibility to illness is increased. Proper , including adequate protein, , and (such as vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta-carotene, which are all found in fruits and vegetables) may help to improve immune response and reduce the risk of illness.
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283. Inborn Errors of Metabolism
Inborn errors of are inherited disorders in which the body cannot the components of food (, , and fats). Metabolism is the process that changes food components into and other required . These disorders may be caused by the altered activity of essential , deficiencies of the substances that activate the enzymes, or faulty transport compounds. disorders can be devastating if appropriate treatment is not initiated promptly and monitored frequently.
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284. Infant Mortality Rate
The infant mortality rate is the number of infant deaths (during the first twelve months of life) per 1,000 live births. Before birth, a fetus faces major health risks from during pregnancy, particularly from inadequate, absent, or delayed prenatal care. A mother's may result in a premature birth, which substantially increases the likelihood of infant death.
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285. Infant Nutrition
No description given
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286. Infant Nutrition
The first year of life is a period of very rapid growth. An infant's birth weight doubles after about five months and triples by the first birthday, by which time the infant's length increases by half. Adequate and appropriate is essential during this period, for infants that do not receive sufficient , , and will not reach their expected growth.
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287. Infection
288. Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) refers to a group of inflammatory disorders mostly of the large intestine including ulcerative colitis and that cause the intestines to become inflamed.
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289. Insulin
is a produced by specialized cells in the pancreas. Secreted into the bloodstream at each meal, insulin helps the body use and store (sugar) produced during the digestion of food. In people with , the pancreas either does not produce enough insulin or the body cannot use the insulin that is produced in an efficient manner.
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290. Intuitive Eating
The central premise of the intuitive eating program is that people’s bodies possess innate biological wisdom that already knows what foods and eating habits are best for them, beyond all the different dietary recommendations that flood the market and create confusion among consumers. Intuitive eating steers away from scientific explanations and rigid dietary requirements and values the psychological component of eating as an important factor in nutrition. The task for practitioners of intuitive eating is to recover the innate wisdom of the body, and the program offers practices to facilitate this process.
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291. Intussusception
Intussusception is a medical emergency in which one portion of the intestine (bowel) slides or “telescopes” into another section of bowel, cutting off the blood supply and blocking the flow of materials through the digestive system.
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292. Iodine
Iodine (I) is a non-metallic element that the body needs in very small (trace) amounts in order to remain healthy. It can only be acquired through diet. Deficiencies of iodine are a serious health problem in some parts of the world.
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293. Iron
Iron (Fe) is a metal essential to almost all bacteria, plants, and animals. In humans, iron is a compnent of the red pigment hemoglobin that gives red blood cells their color and affects the transport of oxygen throughout the body, conversion of nutrients into energy, production of new deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA, genetic material), and regulation of cell growth and cell differentiation. Without iron, life on Earth would not exist. Humans must acquire all the iron they need from diet.
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294. Irradiated Food
Irradiated foods are foods that have been exposed to a radiant energy source to kill harmful bacteria, insects, or parasites, or to delay spoilage, sprouting, or ripening.
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295. Irradiation
Irradiation, or "electronic ," exposes food to a radiant source of energy, such as or electron beams, for a brief period of time. Irradiation is a "cold" process that produces little heat, so food can remain packaged throughout the process—and until opened by the consumer. Irradiation decreases or eliminates harmful , insects, and . It does not make a food radioactive, and it is allowed in nearly forty countries (including the United States, France, Israel, Russia, and China). It is also endorsed by many agencies, including the World Health Organization. Food Irradiation is not without controversy, however, and many consumer groups and organic farming organizations oppose it, believing that it can alter the cellular structure of foods and cause the production of . Other hazards cited by critics include the partial destruction of in irradiated foods, the destruction of beneficial bacteria as well as harmful bacteria, and the environmental hazard of nuclear irradiation facilities.
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296. Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is an idiopathic functional gastrointestinal disorder. More simply, the bowel appears normal, but does not function correctly,
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297. Irritable Bowel Syndrome Diet
The diet is a set of recommendations designed to reduce the symptoms of both and diarrhea that are common with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). It is not a diet designed for weight loss.
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298. Isoflavones
are , which are naturally occurring compounds found in plants that potentially have strong activity (and, therefore, a effect) in the body. They may help lower the risk for various diseases, including , , and . Similar in chemical structure to , isoflavones are, in fact, weak estrogens, and may have an effect similar to estrogens on the body. Nonestrogenic effects of isoflavones include reduction of levels and inhibition of cancer-cell growth. Food sources include soy products such as soy milk, , tempeh, and miso, but not soy sauce or soybean oil. Isoflavones may or may not be found in soy , depending on the processing method.
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299. Jenny Craig Diet
Jenny Craig is a calorie-based three-stage lifestyle weight-loss program that incorporates pre-packaged food, transition to regular food, and long-term weight maintenance.
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300. Jillian Michaels Diet
The Jillian Michaels diet focuses on self, science, and sweat to help dieters achieve weight loss, toning, and increased health and fitness.
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301. Johnson, Howard
302. Juice Fasts
Juice fasts, sometimes called juice therapy, are short-term dietary practices—typically one to three days in length—during which the dieter consumes only fruit, vegetable, or other plant juices in order to cleanse the body of heavy metals and other chemical toxins; as a practice related to Ayurvedic medicine; as the first step in the treatment of colitis, arthritis, depression, HIV infection, or other diseases; for weight reduction; as part of a vegetarian, fruitarian, or vegan lifestyle; or as a part of a general program of eliminating such other unhealthy habits as smoking, drinking large amounts of alcohol or caffei-nated beverages, and overeating. Some people drink large amounts of freshly extracted fruit or vegetable juices as part of their regular diet without necessarily fasting; this practice is called juicing.
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303. Kellogg, John Harvey
304. Ketogenic Diets
Ketogenic diets are a group of high-fat, moderate-protein, and very low-carbohydrate diets given to treat some children and adolescents with epilepsy, and some adults with epilepsy and other diseases. The name refers to the increased production of ketone bodies as a result of this special diet. Ketone bodies are three compounds that are formed during the of and are ordinarily excreted in the urine. An abnormally high level of ketone bodies is called keto-sis, and this condition is the goal of the ketogenic diet. It is thought that ketosis helps to control the frequency and severity of epileptic seizures, even though the reasons for this effect are not fully understood as of 2007.
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305. Kidney Diet
The kidney diet, also known as the renal diet, is a set of guidelines for people with kidney disease. The types of foods prescribed depend on the level of kidney failure the patient is experiencing, but generally the diet involves controlling the amount of , potassium, phosphorus, , and fluid that a person ingests. People with kidney disease should be in consultation with a renal dietitian.
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306. Kroc, Ray
307. Kwashiorkor
The term , meaning "the disease of the displaced child" in the language of Ga, was first defined in the 1930s in Ghana. Kwashiorkor is one of the more severe forms of and is caused by inadequate protein intake. It is, therefore, a deficiency.
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308. La Weight Loss Program
The LA Weight Loss program is a diet plan based around weight loss centers. The centers offer counseling, personalized weight loss planning, and exercise guidelines.
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309. Lacto-Vegetarianism
The term ’vegetarian’ is non-specific. It is used to describe a whole range of diets, practiced with differing degrees of restrictio9n. Vegetarians are sometimes referred to as ’semi-’ of ’demi-’ vegetarian, if they merely exclude meat. Then more widely accepted classifications are listed below.
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310. Lactose Intolerance
is the inability to digest significant amounts of lactose, the primary sugar in milk. This inability results from a shortage of the lactase, which is normally produced by the cells that line the small intestine. Lactase breaks down lactose into simpler forms that can then be absorbed into the bloodstream during the digestive process. Common symptoms of lactose intolerance include , cramps, bloating, gas, and diarrhea.
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311. Lactose Intolerance Diet
Lactose intolerance is a condition caused by the inability to digest lactose, a sugar found in milk. The lactose intolerance diet is a diet designed to treat the symptoms that result from undigested lactose.
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312. Lay Health Advisor
One model utilized to counter public health budget cuts is the use of lay health advisors (LHAs). Potential LHAs are individuals in the community who have a reputation as a "natural helper" and are trusted by their friends, family, and neighbors. One of the primary objectives of an LHA is to bring together professionals and consumers to mobilize the resources of a community to foster support for preventive health actions. LHAs can facilitate behavior change, especially in underserved populations, by bringing notice to particular health issues that may be of detriment to that community.
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313. Lead Poisoning
Lead is an indestructible that can accumulate and linger in the body. Although the problem of lead exposure has been reduced in the United States, minorities and disadvantaged individuals remain chronically exposed. In developing countries, occupational and environmental exposures still exist and are a serious public health problem.
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314. Legumes
are the edible seeds of plants. They provide a good source of , thiamine, folic acid, vitamin E, and . The fiber in legumes helps to lower blood . Examples of legumes are: dried beans, peas, and seeds (including navy, broad, butter, northern, pinto, red, and black beans, as well as chick peas, soybeans, and peanuts).
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315. Life Expectancy
The term is used to describe the average life span of an individual. Life expectancy can vary considerably in different areas of the world. Compared to other advanced countries, for example, people in the United States "die earlier and spend more time disabled" (WHO, 2000). Factors that affect life expectancy in the United States include: (1) the HIV epidemic, (2) cancers relating to tobacco, (3) high rates of , (4) poor health among minority groups living in rural areas, and (5) high levels of violence.
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316. Lipid Profile
disease (CVD) is a major cause of death in the world and is mainly due to (hardening of the ). Abnormal blood are risk factors for CVD.
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317. Liquid Diets
Liquid diets is a term that encompasses a wide range of diets that serve a variety of functions. It can mean either partial or full meal replacement by either clear or non-clear fluids. Doctors often prescribe a liquid diet for before or after certain surgeries, or for patients who are medically obese. People also use them for fasting or weight loss.
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318. Low Birth Weight Infant
An infant born with a weight of less than five pounds (2,500 grams) at birth is classified as a low birth weight infant. Babies with low birth weight were either born prematurely or are small for their age because their growth was restricted in the womb. Poor maternal health and may cause low birth weight. Risk factors include inadequate prenatal nutrition, smoking during pregnancy, and infection during pregnancy. Low birth weight infants face a higher risk of death within the first year of life and have higher rates of disability and disease than other infants. Low birth weight is a leading cause of infant mortality throughout world.
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319. Low-Cholesterol Diet
A low cholesterol diet is a diet designed to reduce the amount of cholesterol circulating in the blood.
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320. Low-Fat Diet
Different medical organizations, governments, and diet plans define ’low fat’ slightly different ways. In this essay, a low fat diet is one where 30% or less of the total daily calories come from A very low fat diet is one where 15% or less of the total daily calories come from fat. By comparison, in the average American diet about 35–37% of calories come from fat.
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321. Low-Protein Diet
A low diet, a diet in which people are required to reduce their intake of protein, is used by persons with abnormal kidney or liver function to prevent worsening of their disease.
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322. Low-Sodium Diet
A low diet is a diet that is low in salt, usually allowing less than 1 teaspoon per day. Many diseases, including kidney disease, heart disease, and diabetes, require a patient to follow a low sodium diet.
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323. Macrobiotic Diet
The macrobiotic diet is part of a philosophy and lifestyle that incorporates concepts of balance and harmony from Asian philosophy and beliefs about diet from Traditional Chinese Medicine. It is intended to be a weight-loss diet, although people who switch to this diet often lose weight.
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324. Macrobiotic Diet
George Ohsawa (1893–1966) coined the term to describe a philosophy towards life, health, and healing. Macrobiotic means "way of long life." Macrobiotics is best described as a way of living according to the principles of yin and yang. Ohsawa, in his book, describes twelve principles of yin and yang. On the simplest level, it means that individuals eat foods that keep them in balance with their (i.e., in a hot (yang) climate, more cooling (yin) foods are eaten, and vice versa). Oshawa outlined a ten-stage "Zen" macrobiotic in which each stage gets more restrictive. The diet is alleged to overcome all forms of illness. At the "highest level," the diet is nutritionally inadequate and has resulted in several deaths. Oshawa devoted much of his time trying to understand the "Order of the Universe," and eventually succumbed to the efforts of his experimentation.
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325. Macronutrients
Nutrients are substances needed for growth, and for other body functions. Macronutrients are nutrients that provide calories or energy. The prefix makro is from the Greek and means big or large, used because macronutrients are required in large amounts. There are three broad classes of macro-nutrients: proteins, and fats.
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326. Magnesium
Magnesium (Mg) is an element belonging to the alkaline earth metal group. It participates in over 300 metabolic reactions, is crucial for life and health and is
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327. Maker's Diet
The Maker’s diet is a diet based on biblical dietary laws. It provides guidelines to help dieters to eat as they were created to eat. It encompasses aspects of physical, mental, spiritual and emotional health.
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328. Malnutrition
The of the human body reflect the nutritional intake necessary to maintain optimal body function and to meet the body's daily needs. (literally, "bad ") is defined as "inadequate nutrition," and while most people interpret this as , falling short of daily nutritional requirements, it can also mean overnutrition, meaning intake in excess of what the body uses. However, undernutrition affects more than one-third of the world's children, and nearly 30 percent of people of all ages in the developing world, making this the most damaging form of malnutrition worldwide.
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329. Manganese
Manganese (Mn) is a mineral necessary in very tiny (trace) amounts for human health. In large quantities, manganese is poisonous. Manganese is used in some enzyme reactions and for the proper development of bones and cartilage. Humans must meet their needs for manganese from their diet. Manganese is
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330. Maple Syrup Urine Disease
Maple syrup urine disease (), which is also known as branched-chain ketoaciduria, branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase deficiency, or deficiency, is a rare but potentially fatal inherited metabolic disorder () passed down in an autosomal recessive pattern. The special diet associated with is a low-protein diet characterized by restriction of a specific amino acid known as leu-cine; the use of high-calorie liquid or gel formulas that are free of branched-chain amino acids (s); and frequent monitoring of the levels in the patient’s blood plasma. Strict adherence to this diet is necessary to prevent developmental delays, mental retardation, and recurrent metabolic crises leading to respiratory failure and death.
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331. Marasmus
is one component of (PEM), the other being . It is a severe form of malnutrition caused by inadequate intake of protein and , and it usually occurs in the first year of life, resulting in and growth retardation. Marasmus accounts for a large burden on global health. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that deaths attributable to marasmus approach 50 percent of the more than ten million deaths of children under age five with PEM.
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332. Marketing Strategies
The American Marketing Association defines marketing as "the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives." Marketers use an assortment of strategies to guide how, when, and where product information is presented to consumers. Their goal is to persuade consumers to buy a particular brand or product.
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333. Mastitis
Mastitis is a common infection among breastfeeding women. The infection causes the breast to become tender, red, and hot. The woman also experiences flu-like symptoms, such as fever, tiredness, and sometimes and vomiting. Breast infections can occur when the milk ducts become plugged or when the nipples become cracked. In rare cases, the connective tissues of the breast may become infected.
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334. Maternal Mortality Rate
The maternal mortality rate reflects the number of maternal deaths in a population due to both direct obstetric causes and to conditions aggravated by pregnancy or childbirth. The maternal mortality rate in the United States is approximately 7.7 deaths per 100,000 pregnancies.
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335. Mayo Clinic Diet (Fad Diet)
The Mayo Clinic diet (fad diet) is a popular diet that was neither created by nor endorsed by the Mayo Clinic, an internationally respected medical research facility headquartered in Rochester, Minnesota. The fad diet promises a weight loss of 10 pounds (4.5kilo-grams) for the person who follows the plan for 12 days. The dieter wanting to lose more weight takes two days off from the regimen and then starts the diet again. A person supposedly could lose more than 50 pounds (22.7 kilograms) within several months, according to the diet plan. The diet is low in , high in fat, and restricts the consumption of fruits, breads, and dairy products.
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336. Mayo Clinic Plan (Endorsed by Clinic)
The plan is the weight-management program created by the Mayo Clinic, a respected medical facility headquartered in Rochester, Minnesota. Unlike the fad diet erroneously bearing the clinic’s name, the actual Mayo plan concentrates on longterm health rather than a quick weight loss. While the Mayo Clinic fad diet is a temporary program that promises the dieter will shed 10 pounds (4.5 kilograms) in about two weeks, people following the 12-week Mayo Clinic Healthy Weight plan generally lose 1 to 2 pounds (0.45 to 0.90 kilograms) per week. The diet based on the clinic’s Healthy Weight Pyramid allows unlimited consumption of fruits and vegetables. Exercise is also prescribed.
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337. Meals On Wheels
Meals On Wheels is a federal food assistance program aimed at improving the diets and nutritional status of homebound older adults. It is funded under Title III-C of the Older Americans Act (OAA) of 1965. The program provides one hot meal at noon five days a week. Each meal must supply approximately one-third of the recommended intakes. The meal pattern includes three ounces of meat or a meat alternate, two one-half cup portions of fruits and vegetables, one serving of bread, one teaspoon of butter or margarine, eight ounces of milk or a equivalent, and one serving of dessert.
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338. Meat Analog
A meat analog is a manufactured food product that looks and tastes like meat. Vegetarians and other health-conscious individuals eat meat analogs because they are relatively high in . They are also very versatile and can be broiled, baked, or roasted. Soy, wheat , beans, and/or nuts are used as the main protein source, with other ingredients used to provide texture and a meat-like taste. Meat analogs can be purchased to replace hamburger, steak, chicken, hot dogs, sausage, and many other meat products.
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339. Meckel's Diverticulum
A Meckel’s diverticulum is a small pouch about 2 inches long that develops near the junction of the small and large intestines. Meckel’s diverticulum occurs due to an abnormality in early fetal development. It is the most common birth defect that occurs in the digestive system.
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340. Medical Nutrition Therapy
Medical therapy (MNT) is the development and provision of a nutritional treatment or therapy based on a detailed assessment of a person's medical history, psychosocial history, physical examination, and dietary history. It is used to treat an illness or condition, or as a means to prevent or delay disease or complications from diseases such as . The purpose of the assessment is to:
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341. Medifast
The Medifast diet is a portion-controlled, low-fat, low-carbohydrate, low-calorie diet plan that utilizes meal replacement foods that are obtained from the Medifast company. These meal replacement foods are nutrient-dense and low-calorie. As a low-calorie diet, the Medifast diet is intended to produce rapid weight loss at the start of a weight-loss program for persons who are moderately to extremely obese.
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342. Mediterranean Diet
The Mediterranean diet is better described as a nutritional model or pattern of food consumption rather than a diet in the usual sense of the word. To begin with, there is more than one Mediterranean diet, if the phrase is understood to refer to the traditional foods and eating patterns found in the countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. Francesco Visioli, a researcher who has edited two books on the subject, prefers the term ’’Mediterranean diets’’ in the plural to reflect the fact that ’’the populations in the Mediterranean area have different cultures, religions, economic prosperity, and [levels of] education, and all these factors have some influence on dietary habits and health.’’ For example, Visioli notes that alcohol intake is very low in the Maghreb (coastal northwestern Africa) because most inhabitants of the region are Muslim, and consequently cereal grains figure more prominently in their diet than in most other Mediterranean countries. In addition, the differences among the various forms of the Mediterranean diet are important in understanding some of the research studies that have been done on it, as will be described more fully below.
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343. Mellanby, Edward
344. Men's Nutrition
While many diseases and health care issues affect both men and women, certain diseases and conditions exhibited in men may require distinct approaches regarding diagnosis and management. Some of the major issues associated with men’s health are related to , diabetes, heart disease, , impotence, and health.
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345. Men's Nutritional Issues
While many diseases and health care issues affect both men and women, certain diseases and conditions exhibited in men may require distinct approaches regarding diagnosis and management. Some of the major issues associated with men's health are related to , , , , impotence, and health. This entry highlights definitions, , treatment, and factors of men's health, as well as nutritional implications.
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346. Menopause
Young girls start menstruating between the ages of eleven and thirteen, when their reproductive systems reach maturity. Women have regular every twenty-eight days until about the age of fifty, at which time menstruation becomes irregular. This irregularity signals the start of . The natural cessation of menstruation occurs due to reduced production of the female and progesterone, which generally occurs between the ages of forty and fifty-five. The age at which a woman enters menopause is affected by , race, and environmental factors. Women can also go into premature menopause, either naturally or due to oophorectomy (the surgical removal of the ovaries).
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347. Menopause Diet
A menopause diet is a diet recommended for the special nutritional needs of women undergoing menopause and usually includes foods rich in and .
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348. Metabolism
Carbohydrates made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms are classified as mono-, di-, and poly-saccharides, depending on the number of sugar units they contain. The monosaccharides—glucose, galactose, and fructose—obtained from the digestion of food are transported from the intestinal mucosa via the portal vein to the liver. They may be utilized directly for energy by all tissues; temporarily stored as glycogen in the liver or in muscle; or converted to fat, amino acids, and other biological compounds.
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349. Metabolism
refers to the physical and chemical processes that occur inside the cells of the body and that maintain life. Metabolism consists of anabolism (the constructive phase) and (the destructive phase, in which complex materials are broken down). The transformation of the macronutrients , fats, and in food to , and other processes are parts of the process. ATP (adinosene triphosphate) is the major form of energy used for cellular metabolism.
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350. Minerals
Minerals are inorganic elements that originate in the earth and cannot be made in the body. They play important roles in various bodily functions and are necessary to sustain life and maintain optimal health, and thus are essential nutrients. Most of the minerals in the human diet come directly from plants and , or indirectly from animal foods. However, the mineral content of water and plant foods varies geographically because of variations in the mineral content of soil from region to region.
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351. Minerals
are inorganic elements that originate in the earth and cannot be made in the body. They play important roles in various bodily functions and are necessary to sustain life and maintain optimal health, and thus are essential . Most of the minerals in the human come directly from plants and water, or indirectly from animal foods. However, the mineral content of water and plant foods varies geographically because of variations in the mineral content of soil from region to region.
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352. Molybdenum
Molybdenum is a trace element considered a micronutrient, meaning a nutrient needed in very small amounts. It is required by almost all living organisms and works as a cofactor for enzymes that carry out important chemical transformations in the global carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur cycles. Thus, molybdenum-dependent enzymes are not only required for the health of people, but also for the health of ecosystems.
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353. Mood-Food Relationships
Research on the connection between a person's mood and the food he or she eats has reveled what many people have long believed, that eating a certain food can influence a person's mood—at least temporarily. Research by Judith Wurtman, a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), has focused on how certain foods alter one's mood by influencing the level of certain brain chemicals called . While many other factors influence the level of these chemicals, such as , heredity, , and alcohol, three neurotransmitters—dopamine, norepinephrine, and —have been studied in relation to food, and this research has shown that neurotransmitters are produced in the brain from components of certain foods.
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354. National Academy of Sciences (NAS)
The National Academy of Sciences is a private agency that advises the federal government on scientific and technical matters. It is part of the National Academy, which also includes the National Academy of Engineering, the Institute of Medicine, and the National Research Council.
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355. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)
In the year 1999, 64 percent of the U.S. population was or , while the of among children and adolescents more than doubled during the previous two decades. Fifty-six percent of women over the age of fifty had low bone density, and 16 percent were suffering from the debilitating disease of . And while smoking prevalence hit an all-time low among adults, it has continued to increase among America's youth.
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356. National Institutes of Health (NIH)
The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) are charged with the vital mission of uncovering new knowledge that will lead to better health for everyone. To carry out this ambitious task, the NIH has become the largest agency for biomedical research in the world. It consists of twenty-seven separate institutes and centers and has a multibillion-dollar budget. However, it did not start out this way.
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357. Native American Diet
When Christopher Columbus dropped anchor on the shores of San Salvador in the Caribbean Sea, he believed he reached India. Because he believed he was in India, Columbus named the inhabitants a term that was soon used to refer to all the native inhabitants of North America. Today, the term is more commonly used.
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358. Native Americans, Diet of
When Christopher Columbus dropped anchor on the shores of San Salvador in the Caribbean Sea, he believed he reached India. Because he believed he was in India, Columbus named the inhabitants a term that was soon used to refer to all the native inhabitants of North America. Today, the term is more commonly used.
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359. Neanderthin
The neanderthin diet is a high-protein low-carbohydrate diet that is based on the foods eaten by early humans of the paleolithic era, from about one million years ago to 10,000-14,000 years ago when agriculture developed. Since this was the period of rapid evolution of the human species, modern humans are presumed to be genetically adapted to a paleolithic diet.
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360. Negative Calorie Diet
The Negative Calorie diet is based on the theory that some foods use more calories to digest than are contained in the foods and that this can be used to produce weight loss.
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361. Niacin
Niacin is a general term that refers to two forms of vitamin B, nicotinic acid and niacinamide. Humans need niacin to remain healthy, and although the liver can slowly make very small amounts of niacin, most niacin must come from foods or
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362. Nongovernmental Organizations
The term (NGO) gained widespread use beginning in 1945, when it was used in the United Nations Charter to clearly distinguish between governmental and private organizations. To be considered an NGO, an organization must be free from government control, non-profit, not considered a political party, and not involved in criminal activity.
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363. Northern European Diet
The countries of northern Europe include the United Kingdom of Great Britain (England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland), the Republic of Ireland (now a sovereign country), and France. (Although southern France is generally considered to be part of southern Europe, it will be included in this discussion.) These countries are all part of the European Union. England and France have a very diverse population due to the large number of immigrants from former colonies and current dependent territories. Catholicism and Protestantism are the dominant religions.
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364. Northern Europeans, Diet of
The countries of northern Europe include the United Kingdom of Great Britain (England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland), the Republic of Ireland (now a sovereign country), and France. (Although southern France is generally considered to be part of southern Europe, it will be included in this discussion.) These countries are all part of the European Union. England and France have a very diverse population due to the large number of immigrants from former colonies and current dependent territories. Catholicism and Protestantism are the dominant religions.
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365. Nutrient Density
density is a measure of the nutrients a food provides compared to the it provides. Foods low in calories and high in nutrients are while foods high in calories and low in nutrients are Nutrient-dense foods should be eaten often, whereas nutrient-poor foods should only be eaten occasionally. A healthful includes mostly nutrient-dense foods. People who restrict their calories should obtain as much as they can from the calories they consume by choosing nutrient-dense foods. Those who consistently choose nutrient-poor foods will not get the nutrients they need.
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366. Nutrient-Drug Interactions
Medications have become an integral part of life for many people. Medicine serves to help people when they are sick, allowing them to live longer and healthier lives. With rapidly growing research and technology, medications are more beneficial, and new ones continue to be discovered. do need to be taken with caution, however. All medications, whether prescribed by a doctor or bought , are capable of harmful side effects. The foods people eat contain that are used by the body to produce . Sometimes, certain medications may interact with both the food eaten and the nutrients the food gives to the body for proper functioning. When the body is unable to use a nutrient due to a drug that has been taken, a nutrient-drug interaction has occurred.
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367. Nutrients
An important aspect of is the daily intake of . Nutrients consist of various chemical substances in the food that makes up each person's . Many nutrients are essential for life, and an adequate amount of nutrients in the diet is necessary for providing , building and maintaining
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368. Nutrigenomics
Nutrigenomics can be defined as the study of the relationships between dietary factors and individual genes. Nutrigenomics is sometimes referred to as:
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369. Nutrisystem
NutriSystem is a commercial weight loss program based in the Philadelphia area that delivers heat-and-eat foods directly to the customer’s home in 28-day packages. Its products have been described as ’’fast food for weight loss.’’ Customers select one of six specialized subprograms, each of which offers a prepackaged assortment of food items called ’’Favorites Package’’ or a completely customized selection. As of 2007 NutriSystem has about 800,000 customers in the United States and Canada. In addition to its meal delivery programs, the company offers including a multivitamin called Nutrihance. It has also recently formed a business partnership with a network of franchised fitness centers called Slim and Tone. In early 2007, NutriSystem combined its direct online marketing of diet foods with its network division of franchised consultants. The company’s market value was estimated at $2 billion as of early 2007.
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370. Nutrition
Nutrition is the science that studies the interactions between living organisms and food. Human nutrition includes the study of and other substances found in foods; how the human body uses nutrients for growth and maintenance; and the relationship between foods, food components, dietary patterns, and health. The study of nutrition encompasses all aspects of the ingestion, digestion, absorption, transport, interaction, storage, and excretion of nutrients by the body. In a broader sense, the study of nutrition also includes the various psychological, sociological, cultural, technological, and economic factors that affect the foods and dietary patterns chosen by an individual.
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371. Nutrition and Mental Health
Mental health problems are believed to be the result of a combination of factors that appear to play a role in predisposing individuals to developing a mental health difficulty. These include genetics, age and environmental factors. More recently, however, there is a growing wealth of evidence, which highlights the ever-increasing role that food and nutrition plays in our emotional status. The evidence suggests that may food play an important contributing role in the prevention, progression and management of mental health problems including, Depression, Anxiety, Schizophrenia, Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD), and Alzheimers Disease. Research is ongoing in this area and the role of nutrition in mental health has yet to be fully understood and embraced. Much of the proposed benefits require further research before we can equivocally relate specific mental health problems to our nutritional status.
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372. Nutrition Education
education is a critical component of most major health promotion and disease prevention programs. Research indicates that change is directly related to the amount of nutrition education received. Nutrition Education involves the communication of nutrition-related information that will equip individuals, families, and communities to make healthful food choices. The media remain the primary source of nutrition information in the United States. Thus, nutrition education also focuses on discriminating between credible and noncredible sources of nutrition information. Nutrition messages and programs must be culturally relevant and specific to the target group. Registered dietitians are the professionals who are specifically trained to deliver information on food and nutrition.
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373. Nutrition Literacy
Nutrition literacy refers to the set of abilities needed to understand the importance of good nutrition in maintaining health.
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374. Nutrition Programs in the Community
In the United States, as in most developed countries, a number of services and programs exist to help those who are in need due to age, illness, poverty or adverse circumstances. This is often not the case in less-developed countries, where individuals and communities experience hardships due to a lack of social, health, and welfare services. In the United States, private charitable organizations, churches, and the government assist in providing what is often called a "safety net" of services, including or food services, to prevent or reduce deprivation for individuals and communities. The nutrition programs that have the greatest impact are those supported by the government, and in most cases the federal government provides resources to states through various funding methods.
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375. Nutritional Assessment
A assessment is an in-depth evaluation of both objective and subjective data related to an individual's food and intake, lifestyle, and medical history.
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376. Nutritional Deficiency
occur when a person's intake consistently falls below the recommended requirement. Nutritional deficiencies can lead to a variety of health problems, the most prevalent of which are , beriberi, , pellagra, and . Anemia occurs when the body does not have enough red blood cells to transport from the lungs to the body's cells. The most common symptom of anemia is a constant feeling of . Making sure that one's contains the proper amounts of , , and vitamin B can prevent anemia.
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377. Nutritionist
Nutritionists are individuals who have studied the science of . Many nutritionists have a master's or doctoral degree in nutrition science and conduct research on food safety, eating habits, or the impact of food and nutrition on health. Some nutritionists are registered dietitians (RDs). An RD is a health professional who is trained to provide reliable nutrition advice and care in a variety of settings. In many states, nutritionists must be licensed or certified to practice in and community settings. These licensed or certified nutritionists must meet the same requirements as an RD. Otherwise, many people with little or no education in nutrition science may be called nutritionists or nutrition counselors.
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378. Obesity
Obesity is an abnormal accumulation of body fat, usually 20% or more over an individual’s ideal body weight. Obesity is associated with increased risk of illness, disability, and death.
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379. Obesity
, defined as a of 30 or greater, is an epidemic in the United States and other industrialized nations, and it is rapidly becoming one in developing nations. As countries transition to westernized lifestyles, obesity tends to increase. Obesity rates vary from as little as 2 percent in some Asian countries to as much as 75 percent in some Pacific nations. There are more than 300 million persons in the world, and more than 750 million persons. In the United States, 34 percent of adults are over-weight and 30.5 percent are obese. Between 1980 and 2000, the percentage of overweight children ages six to eleven doubled, from 7 percent to 15 percent, and the percentage of overweight adolescents ages twelve to nineteen tripled, from 5 percent to 16 percent (Ogden, et al.). In Europe, the thinnest country is Sweden, with about 10 percent obesity, while the fattest is Lithuania, with about 79 percent obesity. The sad fact is the of obesity appears to be increasing in all countries.
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380. Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty acids
are organic compounds composed of carbon chains of varying lengths, with an acid group on one end and hydrogen bound to all the carbons of the chain. (EFAs) are those that are necessary for health, but cannot be synthesized by the body. Therefore, it is important to supply the body with EFAs through one's daily dietary intake. EFAs are also called or They are important ingredients for the growth and maintenance of cells. The body utilizes essential fatty acids for production, specifically for the production of , which aid in reducing , migraine headaches, and .
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381. Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Essential to human health, omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated that are not made by the body and must be obtained from a person’s food.
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382. Optifast
Optifast is an all liquid diet. It is intended for significant weight loss in a short period of time, is intended only for the extremely obese, and must be completed under the supervision of a trained physician.
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383. Optimum Health Plan
The Optimum Health Plan is a program created by Andrew Weil, M.D. that uses ideas from integrative medicine to improve a dieter’s physical and emotional health.
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384. Oral Health
Oral tissues, such as the gingiva (gums), teeth, and muscles of mastication (chewing muscles), are living tissues, and they have the same as any other living tissue in the body. When adequate, nutritious food is not available, oral health may be compromised by nutrient-deficiency diseases, such as . In contrast, when food is freely available, as in many industrialized societies, oral health may be compromised by both the continual exposure of the oral to food and the presence of diseases, such as . The not only affects the number and kinds of carious lesions (cavities), but also is an important factor in the development of periodontal disease (gum disease).
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385. Oral Health and Nutrition
Oral tissues, such as the gingiva (gums), teeth, and muscles of mastication (chewing muscles), are living tissues, and they have the same nutritional requirements as any other living tissue in the body.
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386. Oral Rehydration Therapy
Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) involves the replacement of fluids and lost during an episode of diarrheal illness. Diarrheal illnesses are pervasive worldwide, and they have a particularly large impact in the developing world. Children under the age of five are the major victims and account for over 3 million deaths a year due to associated with diarrheal illness. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that over one million deaths are prevented annually by ORT. An oral rehydration solution (ORS) is the cornerstone of this treatment. Between 90 and 95 percent of cases of , watery diarrhea can be successfully treated with ORT.
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387. Organic Food
Organic foods are not specific foods, but are any foods that are grown and handled after harvesting in a particular way. In the United States, organic foods are crops that are raised without using synthetic pesticides, synthetic fertilizers, or sewage sludge fertilizer, and they have not been altered by genetic engineering. Organic animal products come from animals that have been fed 100% organic feed and raised without the use of growth hormones or antibiotics in an environment where they have access to the outdoors. Standards for organic foods vary from country to country. The requirements in Canada and Western Europe are similar to those in the United States. Many developing countries have no standards for certifying food as “organic.”
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388. Organic Foods
In response to a need to standardize the use of such terms as and the U.S. Congress passed the Organic Foods Production Act of 1990, which established the U.S. National Organic Standards Board (NOSB). In 1995, the NOSB defined as "an production management system that promotes and enhances , cycles and soil biological activity. It is based on minimal use of off-farm inputs and on management practices that restore, maintain and enhance ecological harmony." Organic production uses "materials and practices that enhance the ecological balance of natural systems and that integrate the parts of the farming system into an ecological whole," though such practices "cannot ensure that products are completely free of residues" of pesticides, herbicides, and other additives or contaminants. However, "methods are used to minimize pollution from air, soil, and water. Organic food handlers, processors, and retailers adhere to standards that maintain the integrity of organic agricultural products. The primary goal of organic agriculture is to optimize the health and productivity of interdependent communities of soil life, plants, animals and people" (NOSB).
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389. Organisms, Food-Borne
Food-borne organisms are , , and that can cause illnesses which are either infectious or toxic in nature. They enter the body through the ingestion of contaminated food or water. Every person is at risk of food-borne illness, although infants, the elderly, the , and the are particularly at risk. Food-borne illness may be mild, seriously debilitating, or even fatal. Illness is typically characterized by diarrhea, vomiting, or both, but it can also involve other parts of the body, such as the central . Food-borne illness outbreaks most often result from inadequate cooking, inadequate holding temperatures, cross-contamination, unsafe food sources, and poor personal .
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390. Orlistat
Orlistat, also known as tetrahydrolipstatin (THL), is a drug used to treat in conjunction with a low-calorie, The anti-obesity drug is used as a medical aid to lose weight (weight loss) and to maintain that weight afterwards (weight maintenance). It is classified within the drug class called lipase inhibitors, where lipase is produced primarily in the pancreas. Orlistat is a crystalline power that is whitish in color. Chemically, it is the saturated derivative of lipstatin, which is isolated from The empirical chemical formula for orlistat is CHNO.
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391. Osteomalacia
is a disease in which insufficient mineralization leads to a softening of the bones. Usually, this is caused by a deficiency of , which reduces bone formation by altering and . Osteomalacia can occur because of reduced exposure to sunlight (which, after touching the skin, causes the body to make vitamin D), insufficient intake of vitamin D–enriched foods (like vitamin D–fortified milk), or improper digestion and of food with vitamin D (as in disorders such as or celiac disease).
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392. Osteopenia
Osteopenia is defined as the stage of low bone density that precedes . At this stage, bone density is below average but not as low as occurs with osteoporosis. The World Health Organization formed a committee in 1994 to define osteoporosis, and four categories were defined: normal, osteopenia, osteoporosis, and established osteoporosis. All of these categories are measured by bone density and the prevalence of fractures. In osteopenia, bone density falls between one standard deviation and 2.5 standard deviations below average. Risk factors include age, race, and ethnicity, and the use of . Although treatment for osteopenia is largely affected by age and the presence of fractures, women between the ages of fifty and seventy can prevent it by taking with and exercising regularly.
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393. Osteoporosis
Osteoporosis is a chronic disorder in which the mass of bones decreases and their internal structure degenerates to the point where bones become fragile and break easily.
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394. Osteoporosis
, which is characterized by a decrease in the mass of otherwise normal bone is the most common bone disease. Normal bone is made of a hard outer shell (the cortex) and an inner network of spicules (fibers), called trabeculae, that give bone its characteristic strength. Bone mass is maintained at a progressive and then constant level until around the age of thirty-five. This maintenance is accomplished through bone remodeling, a cycle of breaking down and building up of bone. This cycle is controlled by cells, which make bone, and osteoclast cells, which destroy bone. Beginning around age forty, the rate at which bone breaks down can exceed that at which it is built, resulting in diminished mass and a diminished amount of in the bone. For women, in addition to this normal age-related bone loss, and its subsequent reduction in female levels (specifically ) cause a specific loss in cortical and trabecular bone. In those who develop osteoporosis, the reduction in cortical and trabecular bone can be up to 30-40 percent, resulting in fragile bones that are prone to fracture.
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395. Osteoporosis Diet
, most commonly referred to as “thinning of the bones”, is a disease in which bone mineral density is reduced. This can cause the bones become brittle and fragile and easily fracture. Although there is no cure for osteoporosis, it can be prevented. Healthy diets, along with weight bearing exercise, are key factors in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. The focus of the osteoporosis diet is on optimising bone health at every stage in life and is based on a normal balanced diet with an emphasis on rich foods and .
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396. Overweight
The term is used to describe an excess amount of total body weight including all tissues (fat, bone, muscle, etc.) and water. , in contrast, is an excess amount of body fat. An adult woman or man who has a body-fat percentage exceeding 35 percent (for women) or 25 percent (for men) is considered . A person can be overweight without being obese, as many professional football players and bodybuilders are, for such individuals have large amounts of muscle but not much fat. Likewise, a person can be obese without being overweight, such as some elderly individuals or lazy "couch potatoes," who may not weigh a lot but have too much body fat. However, almost all obese people are also overweight.
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397. Ovolactovegetarianism
Ovolactovegetarians, who are also known as lacto-ovovegetarians, are vegetarians who do not eat fish, poultry, or red meat but accept eggs, milk, and honey as part of their diet on the grounds that these foods can be obtained without killing the animals who produce them. The part of the name comes from the Latin word for egg, while is derived from the Latin word for milk. In the West, ovolactovegetarians are the largest subgroup of vegetarians. As a result, most restaurants, institutional food services, cookbooks, and prepared foods that identify themselves as ’vegetarian’ without further qualification are ovo-lactovegetarian. Similarly, travelers who order special ’vegetarian’ meals from an airline before departure will be given ovolactovegetarian food unless they are more specific.
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398. Ovovegetarianism
Ovovegetarianism is a subcategory of . Ovovegetarians, who are sometimes called eggetarians, are people who consume a plant-based diet with the addition of eggs. The part of the name comes from the Latin word for egg. Ovovegetarians do not eat red meat, poultry, fish, or use cow’s milk or milk-based products (cheese, yogurt, ice cream).
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399. Pacific Islander American Diet
The Pacific Islands contain 789 habitable islands and are divided into the three geographic areas: Polynesia, Melanesia, and Micronesia. According to the 2000 U.S. Census, there are over a million Pacific Islanders in the United States, most of whom live in California, Hawaii, Washington, Utah, and Texas. Pacific Islander ethnicities in the United States include Carolinian, Fijian, Guamanian, Hawaiian, Kosraean, Melanesian, Micronesian, Northern Mariana Islander, Palauan, Papua New Guinean, Ponapean, Polynesian, Samoan, Solomon Islander, Tahitian, Tarawa Islander, Tongan, Trukese (Chuukese), and Yapese. Prior to 1980, Pacific Islander Americans (except Hawaiians) were classified with Asian Americans under the classification of ’Asian and Pacific Islander American.’ Today, the U.S. Census Bureau includes Pacific Islander Americans under the classification of ’Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander.’ Pacific Islanders are a racially and culturally diverse population group, and they follow a wide variety of religions and have an array of languages.
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400. Pacific Islander Americans, Diet of
The Pacific Islands contain 789 habitable islands and are divided into the three geographic areas: Polynesia, Melanesia, and Micronesia. According to the 2000 U.S. Census, there are over a million Pacific Islanders in the United States, most of whom live in California, Hawaii, Washington, Utah, and Texas. Pacific Islander ethnicities in the United States include Carolinian, Fijian, Guamanian, Hawaiian, Kosraean, Melanesian, Micronesian, Northern Mariana Islander, Palauan, Papua New Guinean, Ponapean, Polynesian, Samoan, Solomon Islander, Tahitian, Tarawa Islander, Tongan, Trukese (Chuukese), and Yapese. Prior to 1980, Pacific Islander Americans (except Hawaiians) were classified with Asian Americans under the classification of "Asian and Pacific Islander American." Today, the U.S. Census Bureau includes Pacific Islander Americans under the classification of "Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander." Pacific Islanders are a racially and culturally diverse population group, and they follow a wide variety of religions and have an array of languages.
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401. Pacific Islander Diet
The Pacific Ocean—the world’s largest ocean—extends about 20,000 kilometers from Singapore to Panama. There are 789 habitable islands within the ’Pacific Islands,’ a geographic area in the western Pacific comprising Polynesia, Melanesia, and Micronesia. Polynesia includes 287 islands and is triangular, with Hawaii, New Zealand, and Easter Island at the apexes. Other major Polynesian islands include American (Eastern) Samoa, Western Samoa, Tonga, Tahiti, and the Society Islands. The Hawaiian Islands have been studied more than most other Pacific islands primarily because Hawaii is part of the United States of America. The Melanesian Islands (Melanesia) include the nations of Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands and New Caledonia (a French dependent). The 2,000 small islands of Micronesia include Guam (American), Kiribati, Nauru, the Marshall Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Gilbert Islands, Palau, and the Federated States of Micronesia. Migration is very fluid between Polynesia, Melanesia, and Micronesia, and many Pacific Islanders also migrate to the United States and other countries. Pacific Islanders are a racially and culturally diverse population, and the people of the islands follow a wide variety of religions.
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402. Pacific Islanders, Diet of
The Pacific Ocean—the world's largest ocean—extends about 20,000 kilometers from Singapore to Panama. There are 789 habitable islands within the "Pacific Islands," a geographic area in the western Pacific comprising Polynesia, Melanesia, and Micronesia. Polynesia includes 287 islands and is triangular, with Hawaii, New Zealand, and Easter Island at the apexes. Other major Polynesian islands include American (Eastern) Samoa, Western Samoa, Tonga, Tahiti, and the Society Islands. The Hawaiian Islands have been studied more than most other Pacific islands primarily because Hawaii is part of the United States of America. The Melanesian Islands (Melanesia) include the nations of Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands and New Caledonia (a French dependent). The 2,000 small islands of Micronesia include Guam (American), Kiribati, Nauru, the Marshall Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Gilbert Islands, Palau, and the Federated States of Micronesia. Migration is very fluid between Polynesia, Melanesia, and Micronesia, and many Pacific Islanders also migrate to the United States and other countries. Pacific Islanders are a racially and culturally diverse population, and the people of the islands follow a wide variety of religions.
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403. Pantothenic Acid
Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B, belongs to the group of B-complex water-soluble . Every living organism needs pantothenic acid to survive. Humans do not make this vitamin and must obtain it from the food they eat.
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404. Pasteur, Louis
405. Pasteurization
, a process discovered by Louis Pasteur (while trying to inactivate spoilage organisms in beer and wine), occurs when a product is heated to a specific temperature for a specified length of time. This process is now applied to a wide array of food products, such as milk, fruit juice, cheese, and water. Milk is heated to 145°F (63°C) for thirty minutes (or to 160°F [71°C] for fifteen seconds) and then rapidly cooled to 50°F (10°C) for storage. In developing countries, heating water to 149°F (65°C) for six minutes will kill enough contaminates to make the water safe to drink. Pasteurization protects consumers from harmful such as Mycobacterium and Coxiella Burnetii in milk, and pasteurized products benefit from longer shelf life.
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406. Pauling, Linus
407. Peanut Butter Diet
The peanut butter diet is a diet plan developed by Holly McCord, nutrition editor of Prevention magazine, a popular health and nutrition magazine. The diet allows consumers to enjoy peanut butter every day while still achieving their weight loss goals. The diet is appealing because it offers a wide variety of nutrients, while allowing the dieter to enjoy peanut butter, a satisfying “comfort” food.
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408. Pellagra
409. Pemberton, John S.
410. Perricone Diet
The Perricone diet is an anti-inflammatory and that emphasizes salmon and nutritional supplements. It is designed to promote weight loss, maintain a healthy weight, and slow or reverse the visible aging process. The cornerstone food in the diet is fish, primarily salmon.
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411. Personality Type Diet
The personality type diet is a diet developed by Dr. Robert Kushner that helps dieters identify what kind of eating, exercising, and coping habits they have to help dieters achieve weight loss and better health through personalized incremental change.
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412. Pesticides
Pesticide use is widespread in agriculture throughout the world, raising serious questions about the dangers theses substances pose to human health and the . Pesticides are substances intended to prevent, destroy, or repel injurious plants or animals. The term is frequently defined more broadly to include insecticides, herbicides (used to inhibit the growth and reproduction of certain plants), and fungicides (used to inhibit the growth of molds, mildews, and yeasts).
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413. Phenylketonuria (PKU)
(fee-nyl-key-ton-uria), or PKU, is an inherited disease that results in severe developmental delay and problems when treatment is not started very early and maintained throughout life. The disease is caused by the absence of the phenylalanine hydroxylase, which normally converts the phenylalanine to another amino acid, tyrosine. This results in a build-up of phenylalanine and a low level of tyrosine, which causes a variety of problems, including cognitive decline, learning disabilities, behavior or neurological problems, and skin disorders.
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414. Phytochemicals
are naturally occurring chemicals in plants that provide flavor, color, texture, and smell. Phytochemicals have potential health effects, as they may boost production or activity, which may, in turn, block , suppress cells, or interfere with processes that can cause and . Phytochemical-rich foods include vegetables (e.g., broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, cabbage), vegetables (e.g., carrots, celery, parsley, parsnips), vegetables (e.g., garlic, onions, leek), berries, citrus fruits, whole grains, and (e.g., soybeans, beans, lentils, peanuts). In the early twenty-first century, identification of the role of phytochemicals in health is an emerging area of science, and the global health community does not recommend supplementation with any specific phytochemicals.
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415. Phytonutrients
Phytonutrients are a class of nutrients that are thought to have health-protecting properties. The prefix is from the Greek and means plant, and it is used because phytonutrients are obtained only from plants.
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416. Pica
Pica is defined as a compulsion to consume nonfood substances. Persons with pica crave items such as dirt, clay, paint chips, plaster, chalk, cornstarch, laundry starch, baking soda, coffee grounds, cigarette ashes, burnt match heads, cigarette butts, and rust. The cause of pica is poorly understood, but this strange behavior is often seen in those who are iron-deficient, particularly pregnant woman, even though none of the craved items contain significant amounts of iron. Pica can be dangerous during pregnancy, since consuming large amounts of some substances may cause deficiencies, intestinal problems, or lead to toxicity, placing both mother and baby at risk.
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417. Plant-Based Diets
Plant-based diets are comprised of meals made predominately from a variety of vegetables, fruits, grains, beans, and nuts, with minimal amounts of . Many professional organizations recommend a plant-based to help prevent diseases such as , , and . This is because such a diet is usually high in and low in .
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418. Popular Culture, Food and
Food is very much a part of popular culture, and the beliefs, practices, and trends in a culture affect its eating practices. Popular culture includes the ideas and objects generated by a society, including commercial, political, media, and other systems, as well as the impact of these ideas and objects on society.
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419. Pregnancy
during the preconception period, as well as throughout a pregnancy, has a major impact on pregnancy outcome. Among prepregnancy considerations, the prepregnancy (BMI), folic acid status, and are the most important.
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420. Pregnancy Diet
A healthy diet during pregnancy is essential to provide all the nutrients needed by a mother and her growing baby. It is a common misconception that pregnant women need to “eat for two”. In fact, most of the additional nutrients needed during pregnancy can be obtained by selecting appropriate foods and eating a high quality nutrient-dense diet. However there are some specific recommendations, which include taking folic acid supplements in early pregnancy to reduce the risk of neural tube defects, such as spina bifida. It is also important for pregnant women to be adopt good food hygiene practices to minimize the risk of from harmful bacteria and to avoid substances in foods and drinks that might be potentially harmful to them or their growing baby.
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421. Premenstrual Syndrome
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is characterized by emotional and physical symptoms that can be troubling and cause moderate discomfort for women the week or two before the onset of their menstrual cycle. PMS is estimated to affect up to 40 percent of reproductive-aged women. Approximately 5 to 10 percent of these women experience symptoms so severe that it totally impairs their everyday . This severe form of PMS is known as premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). The precise of PMS is still unknown; however, it is increasingly believed that the sensitive equilibrium between female sex (the and progesterone) and in the brain is altered in women with PMS.
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422. Preschoolers and Toddlers, Diet of
At approximately age one, children enter the latent period of growth. During this period, until the onset of , growth and are more gradual than during the first year. Physical growth steadies, and the body begins to look more proportioned as it prepares for an "upright" .
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423. Pritikin Diet
The Pritikin diet is a heart-healthy high-carbohydrate, low-fat, moderate-exercise lifestyle diet developed in the 1960s.
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424. Probiotics
Probiotics are live, that may interact with and vaginal . Clinical studies indicate that certain probiotics may be useful in treating some diarrheal disorders, respiratory , and , as well as in controlling inflammation and reducing the risk of vaginitis and colon .
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425. Prostate
The prostate is a male gland about the size of a walnut located just behind the bladder and is part of the reproductive system.
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426. Protein
No description given
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427. Protein
are compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, , and , which are arranged as strands of . They play an essential role in the cellular maintenance, growth, and functioning of the human body. Serving as the basic structural molecule of all the tissues in the body, protein makes up nearly 17 percent of the total body weight. To understand protein's role and function in the human body, it is important to understand its basic structure and composition.
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428. Quackery
Quackery is a type of health fraud that promotes products and services that have questionable and unproven scientific bases. Quackery is short for quack-salver, which is derived from two Middle Dutch terms that mean "healing with unguents." However, quacken means "to boast," so a kwakzalver might be a healer who boasts about his power or products.
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429. Raw Foods Diet
The raw food diet is a lifestyle diet where at least 75% of all food consumed eaten raw and never commercially processed or cooked.
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430. Recommended Dietary Allowances
The (RDAs) are intake levels that meet the needs of most healthy Americans. They were originally developed by the National Academy of Sciences, and were based on nutrient levels that would prevent nutrient deficiencies. Since the mid-1990s, RDAs have been developed as one component of nutrient intake standards called (DRIs). RDAs, developed as part of DRIs, target nutrient levels needed not only to prevent nutrient deficiencies, but also to reduce the risk of disease. They are meant to be intake goals averaged over several days, rather than daily requirements. RDAs can help people establish eating habits that promote health and reduce disease risk.
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431. Refugee Nutrition Information System
Every year, thousands of individuals are displaced from their homes and homelands because of wars, political conflicts, and natural disasters. The Refugee Nutrition Information System (RNIS) was established in 1993 to collect data and report on the nutrition, health, and survival status of the most nutritionally vulnerable people in the world, including refugees, internally displaced populations, and those who are forced to migrate.
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432. Regional Diet, American
It is quite clear that nutritional intake is associated with common health conditions such as , (), , (high blood sugar), and disease. People in the United States make daily decisions related to grocery purchases, meal choices, food preparation, and other factors influencing their consumption of food and , and, thus, likely affecting their health. However, much of the current knowledge and most published works are based on studies or other information that concern the general population. This information is important in influencing dietary patterns, but additional information is needed regarding specific regional and minority populations. Additionally, more detailed information is necessary to determine if there are any differences or similarities between these subpopulations. What follows is a general literature review related to minority groups in the United States.
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433. Regulatory Agencies
At the beginning of the twenty-first century, increased levels of terrorist activities and a higher of food-borne illness made regulation and protection of the food supply a worldwide concern. The goal of food regulatory agencies is to ensure that the public food supply is safe from disease caused by infection from human handling or by contamination from chemical or other hazardous substances. Such contamination can occur during all phases of food production, including cultivation, harvesting, processing, packaging, storage, and cooking.
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434. Religion and Dietary Practices
Since the beginning of time, dietary practices have been incorporated into the religious practices of people around the world. Some religious sects abstain, or are forbidden, from consuming certain foods and drinks; others restrict foods and drinks during their holy days; while still others associate dietary and food preparation practices with rituals of the faith. The early biblical writings, especially those found in Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy of the Old Testament (and in the Torah) outlined the dietary practices for
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435. Religion and Dietary Practices
Since the beginning of time, dietary practices have been incorporated into the religious practices of people around the world. Some religious sects abstain, or are forbidden, from consuming certain foods and drinks; others restrict foods and drinks during their holy days; while still others associate dietary and food preparation practices with of the faith. The early biblical writings, especially those found in Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy of the Old Testament (and in the Torah) outlined the dietary practices for certain groups (e.g., Christians and Jews), and many of these practices may still be found among these same groups today. Practices such as fasting (going without food and/or drink for a specified time) are described as tenets of faith by numerous religions.
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436. Renal Nutrition
Renal nutrition is concerned with the special dietary needs of kidney patients.
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437. Riboflavin
Riboflavin is a water-soluble vitamin that the body needs to remain healthy. Humans cannot make riboflavin, so they must get it from foods in their diet. Riboflavin is also called vitamin B.
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438. Rice-Based Diets
Rice is the most important cereal crop for human consumption. It is the staple food for over 3 billion people (most of them economically challenged) constituting over half of the world's population.
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439. Rice-based Diets
Rice is the most important cereal crop for human consumption. It is the staple food for over 3 billion people (most of them poor) constituting over half of the world's population. All of the world's great civilizations developed only after the domestication of various cereal grains, which provided an adequate food supply for large populations. These have included corn in the Americas, wheat in the Near East and southern Europe (Greece and Rome), and rice in China and India. The use of rice spread rapidly from China, India, and Africa, and at the present time it is used as a principal food throughout the world. After the discovery of the Americas, the use of rice took hold in both continents. The national dish of Belize in Central America, for example, is composed of rice and beans. There are now hundreds of rice recipes, with each ethnic cuisine having developed individual recipes. Almost all cookbooks have rice recipes, including recipes for risottos and pilafs. Vegetarians, in particular, cherish rice because it is such an excellent food and can be prepared in so many different and appetizing ways. Rice, delicious in itself, readily takes on any flavor that is added. Long-grain rice, when cooked, becomes separate and fluffy, while medium-grain rice is somewhat chewier. Short-grain rice tends to clump together and remains sticky with its starchy sauce. Arborio is an example of a short-grained rice. Wehani rice has a nutty flavor. Basmati rice (aromatic) is very popular, as is jasmine rice.
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440. Richard Simmons Diet
The Richard Simmons diet focuses on three areas: diet, exercise, and motivation. It emphasizes a balanced diet, moderate exercise, and a positive outlook.
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441. Rickets
was once considered an extremely common disorder of childhood. The term itself is derived from the old English word for "twist," or "wrick," and throughout history children with rickets could be identified by their bowed legs and knock knees, which gave them a twisted appearance.
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442. Rosedale Diet
The Rosedale diet is a diet that was created by Dr. Ron Rosedale. It limits and proteins and is supposed to be able to help the body stabilize levels of leptin, a hormone believed to trigger the brain to send hunger signals to the body.
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443. Rosenstein, Nils Rosén von
444. Sacred Heart Diet
The Sacred Heart diet is a 7 day diet plan that allows a dieter to eat a specific set of foods each day and as much of a special soup as desired.
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445. Satiety
Satiety is a feeling of fullness and satisfaction after eating. It is the opposite of hunger or appetite. The mechanisms and events that lead to a state of satiety are numerous, complex, and not well understood. It is believed that the release of certain and the firing of certain nerves when food enters the intestine sends messages to the brain to signal that it is time to stop eating. predisposition and may affect at what point satiety occurs in an individual. Learning to stop eating when satiety is reached is an important component of weight control.
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446. Scandinavian Diet
Scandinavia is a term for the region that includes Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. The Scandinavian diet often includes many kinds of fish and seafood, and many kinds of salted and preserved foods.
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447. Scandinavians, Diet of
Scandinavia is a peninsula in northern Europe that is occupied by Norway and Sweden. Denmark is also generally considered to be part of Scandinavia because of its historical, political, and cultural ties to Norway and Sweden. These three countries are also part of the Nordic countries, which also include Finland and Iceland. With the exception of Denmark and Iceland, these countries are located north of the Baltic and North Seas and share common borders with each other and Russia. All of these countries are part of the Nordic Council. The Nordic countries have historical and cultural ties, and during the Viking era they had a common language and religion. They are also predominantly Protestant countries.
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448. Scarsdale Diet
The Scarsdale diet is a rapid weight loss regimen classified as a very low-calorie diet, or VLCD. It is also one of the oldest low-carbohydrate diets still followed by some dieters. Although the first edition of was published in 1978, over a quarter-century ago, the book is still in print as of early 2007. It is reported to be particularly popular in France in the early 2000s.
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449. School Food Service
There are 48 million school children who are served by school food services in the United States everyday. Many of these children participate in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP), which was established by Congress in 1946 to provide low-cost or free nutritionally sound lunches to public school children. By 1946, about 7.1 million children were being served. This grew to 22 million by 1970, and by 2000 more than 27.4 million children were fed through the NSLP. Since 1946 more than 180 billion lunches have been served. School food service and the NSLP play a very important role in children's learning.
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450. School-Aged Children, Diet of
The category of school-aged children includes children three to four years old who are preschoolers; elementary school children (kindergarten to fourth grade), who may be between four and ten years of age; middle school children between eleven and thirteen (grades five to eight); and high school children fourteen to eighteen (grades nine to twelve). Often, the their bodies need for optimal functioning and growth are different for each of these age groups.
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451. Scurvy
452. Selenium
Selenium is a trace element considered a micro-nutrient, meaning a nutrient needed in very small amounts, that is required as an essential cofactor for the antioxidant enzymes of the body to counteract the damaging effects of reactive oxygen in tissues.
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453. Senior Nutrition
Senior nutrition addresses the special dietary requirements of the elderly. Although wise food choices and a balanced diet are essential for older adults to maintain a healthy lifestyle and to promote longevity, there are various obstacles that prevent or limit seniors from practicing and benefiting from good eating habits. Such obstacles include loneliness, depression, economic concerns, lack of cooking skills or desire to cook, inadequate nutritional knowledge, reduced capacity to absorb and utilize nutrients, oral/dental problems and difficulty in chewing, loss of appetite, and eating/nutrient complications due to the use of various medications. In addition, older adults need certain and nutrients to aid in the maintenance of their health.
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454. Shangri-la Diet
The Shangri-la diet is not a diet in the usual sense of a set of meal plans or detailed instructions about calorie intake and nutrition. The book that was published in 2006, is perhaps better described as a discussion of a psychological theory about human appetite than a diet book strictly speaking. The core of the author's theory is that people gain weight because they have been conditioned to have a strong association between food and flavor, which keeps the appetite demanding more of a specific source of calories in order to continue tasting the flavor. If a person can break the association between flavor and food intake, they can lose weight because they won't feel hungry as often or as intensely. The book suggests several ways in which this association can be broken, thus leading to lifelong reduction in calorie intake with relatively little physical or emotional distress. As one newspaper reporter describes the diet, “. . . it seems that you may eat whatever you wish under the [author's] plan, but you just won';t want to.” The diet has generated considerable controversy since its publication, not only in regard to its theory of appetite and weight control, but also about the role of expert review and clinical trials in evaluating new diets.
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455. Six Day Body Makeover
The Six Day Body Makeover is a rapid weight loss program designed by Michael Thurmond. The diet is intended to let dieters “drop a dress or pant size” in only six days by following a strict plan of dieting and exercise designed to boost
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456. Six week body makeover
The Six Week Body Makeover is designed for rapid weight loss over a relatively short period of time. It promises that dieters can lose thirty pounds and completely reshape their body in only six weeks by following a plan of dieting and exercise designed to boost
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457. Slim-Fast
Slim-Fastis the trademarked brand name of both a line of diet products and a weight-management program known as the Slim-Fast Optima Diet. Slim-Fast Foods, the manufacturer of the diet products, was acquired by Unilever N.V., a company headquartered in the United Kingdom, in 2000. Slim-Fast diet shakes are perhaps the best-known products in the line, which also includes snack bars, meal bars, smoothies, cookies, and powders for reconstituting by mixing with skimmed milk. The Slim-Fast diet plan is sometimes categorized together with other plans based on liquid diet products as a liquid meal replacement or LMR diet. LMR diet products themselves are a major business in the United States, reported in 2006 to account for over $1 billion in consumer purchases each year.
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458. Slim4Life
Slim4Life is a center-based approach to weight loss that helps dieters lose weight through regular sessions with personal diet counselors.
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459. Small for Gestational Age
Small for gestational age, also known as intrauterine growth retardation, is defined as an infant or fetus smaller in size than expected, meaning a weight in the bottom tenth percentile for a particular age. Small for gestational age is believed to be related to placental insufficiency, infectious disease, malformations, drug and alcohol abuse, and cigarette smoking. Other risk factors include maternal , first pregnancies, and exposure to environmental . It is considered to be one cause of low birth weight (less than twenty-five hundred grams, or five pounds eight ounces). It is not synonymous with prematurity, which is defined as birth before thirty-seven-weeks gestation.
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460. Smoking
Smoking is an important and preventable cause of death and illness. However, as more money has been spent on smoking cessation programs, the of cigarette smoking has risen. In 2002, 48 percent of men and 12 percent of women in the world were smokers (World Health Organization). Tobacco consumption increased from 1,100 million individuals during the early 1990s to 1,300 million by the year 2000 (United Nations Economic and Social Council). At this rate, the number of tobacco-related deaths is projected to reach more than 9 million by the year 2020. The number of tobacco-related deaths increased from 4.2 million to 4.9 million between 2000 and 2002, meaning that more than nine people die due to smoking-related illnesses every minute.
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461. Society for Nutrition Education
The Society for Nutrition Education (SNE) is an organization of nutrition professionals whose aim is to be involved in nutrition education and health promotion. The organization represents professional interests in nutrition education within the United States and worldwide. SNE is dedicated to promoting healthy, sustainable food choices and has a vision of healthy people in healthy communities.
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462. Sodium
Sodium is a mineral that exists in the body as the ion Na+. Sodium is acquired through diet, mainly in the form of salt (sodium chloride, NaCl). Regulating the amount of Na+ in the body is absolutely critical to life and health.
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463. Sonoma diet
The Sonoma diet is a plan for eating healthy, flavorful foods that emphasizes the enjoyment of eating, rather than restrictions. It draws from the culinary cultures of the Sonoma region of California and the Mediterranean coast of Europe. It is intended both to help people lose weight and to maintain a healthy lifestyle.
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464. South American diet
South America is the fourth largest continent on the planet, making up 12% of the earth’s surface. It contains twelve independent nations: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela. In addition, it contains three territories: The Falkland Islands (Great Britain), French Guiana (France), and the Galapagos Islands (Ecuador). The continent has a very diverse population. There are small pockets of native Indian groups and significant numbers of descendents of Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, German, West African, and East Indians settlers. There also are considerable numbers of Chinese and Japanese. Approximately 90 to 95% of South Americans are Roman Catholic.
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465. South Americans, Diet of
South America is the fourth largest continent on the planet, making up 12 percent of the earth's surface. It contains twelve independent nations: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela. In addition, it contains three territories: The Falkland Islands (Great Britain), French Guiana (France), and the Galapagos Islands (Ecuador). The continent has a very diverse population. There are small pockets of native Indian groups and significant numbers of descendents of Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, German, West African, and East Indians settlers. There also are considerable numbers of Chinese and Japanese. Approximately 90 to 95 percent of South Americans are Roman Catholic.
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466. South Beach diet
The South Beach diet is a popular short-term fast-weight-loss diet combined with a long-term calorie-controlled diet. The South Beach diet sets itself apart form several other popular diets by differentiating between ’’good carbohydrates’’ and ’’bad carbohydrates’’ based on their glycemic index and ’’good fats’’ and ’’bad fats’’ based on their degree of saturation.
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467. Southern Europeans, Diet of
Italy, Spain, Portugal, Greece, and southern France make up the region known as southern Europe. Southern France is included because it is culturally similar to the rest of southern Europe. Greece is often grouped with eastern Europe; however, it is included here because Greek food has greatly influenced the cuisine of southern Europe.
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468. Soy
Soy is a general term for products made from soybeans. Soy products include tofu, tempeh, soy oil, natto, miso, soymilk, and edamame.
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469. Soy
A member of the legume family, the soybean is rich in omega-3 , , folic acid, , magnesium, potassium, and the and is also free and low in . The in soybeans is complete, containing all the essential found in animal sources (4 ounces of [soybean curd] contain the same amount and quality of protein as a similar-size hamburger). For individuals who want to include more plant-based protein in their and particularly for those on a vegetarian diet, soy products provide a way to add nonmeat protein to the diet.
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470. Space Travel and Nutrition
has played a critical role throughout the history of exploration, and space exploration is no exception. While a one- to two-week flight aboard the Space Shuttle might be analogous to a camping trip, adequate nutrition is absolutely critical when spending several months aboard the International Space Station or several years on a mission to another planet. To ensure adequate nutrition, space-nutrition specialists must know how much of various individual astronauts need, and these nutrients must be available in the spaceflight food system. To complicate matters, spaceflight are influenced by many of the changes that occur during spaceflight.
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471. Spirulina
Spirulina is a genus of blue-green algae used as a nutritional supplement. Blue-green algae, microscopic fresh-water organisms, are also known as cyanobacte-ria. Their color is derived from the green pigment of chlorophyll, and the blue from a protein called phy-cocyanin. The species most commonly recommended for use as a nutritional supplement are These occur naturally in warm, alkaline, salty, brackish lakes, but are also commonly grown by aquaculture and harvested for commercial use. Spirulina contains many nutrients, including B vitamins, beta-carotene, gamma-linolenic acid, iron, calcium, magnesium, manganese, potassium, selenium, zinc, bioflavonoids, and protein.
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472. Sports Nutrition
Sports nutrition is a broad interdisciplinary field that involves dietitians, biochemists, exercise physiologists, cell and molecular biologists, and occasionally psychotherapists. It has both a basic science aspect that includes such concerns as understanding the body's use of nutrients during athletic competition and the need for nutritional supplements among athletes; and an application aspect, which is concerned with the use of proper nutrition and to enhance an athlete's performance. The psychological or psychiatric dimension of sports nutrition is concerned with eating and other mental disorders related to nutrition among athletes.
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473. Sports Nutrition
Aside from training, is the most important influence on sports performance. To reach one's highest potential, all of the body's systems must be working optimally. The best way to achieve this is to eat a variety of nutritious foods. , , , , , , and fluids all play a unique and crucial role.
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474. St. John's Wort
St. John's wort (also sometimes called Saint John's wort) is the common name for any member of a group of annual or long-living perennial herbs and shrubs with attractive five-petaled golden-yellow flowers. It is used by some people as a way to decrease the symptoms
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475. Stark, William
476. Subway Diet
The Subway diet is the weight-loss plan created by Jared Fogle, an obese college student who weighed 425 pounds (192.7 kilograms). The 22-year-old Fogle lost 245 pounds (111.1 kilograms) in 11 months by following a daily diet that consisted primarily of two low-fat sandwiches purchased at the Subway fast-food chain. After losing 100 pounds (45.4 kilograms), the 6-foot-2 (187.9-centimter) Fogle added walking to his daily routine. His dramatic weight loss led to Fogle's appearances in Subway commercials and his role as a motivational speaker and an advocate in the fight against
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477. Sustainable Food Systems
A is a process that aims to create a more direct link between the producers (farmers) of food and and the consumers of the food. This system consists of several components, including production, processing, distribution, consumption, and waste disposal.
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478. Suzanne Somers Weight Loss Plan
The Suzanne Somers Weight Loss Plan is a guide to losing weight that does not limit caloric intake, but instead focuses on the correct foods in the correct combinations. It also focuses on reducing sugar and carbohydrate intake.
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479. The Green Revolution
The Green Revolution (GR) refers to the use of high-yield variety (HYV) seeds, which were invented by the crop geneticist Norman Borlaugh. HYVs are normally used as a part of a technological package that also includes biochemical inputs such as water, fertilizers, and pesticides, and often mechanical inputs. The GR, which started in the 1960s, is the last of the four agricultural revolutions in the world. It has been used in more than one hundred poor countries and has made possible a "revolutionary" increase in food production. The origin of the Green Revolution can be traced to the early twentieth century and the Malthusian fear that world food production would eventually fail to feed the growing population. This would result in a "red revolution" by the hungry. The implications of the GR for agrarian change, and especially for smaller farmers and laborers, have been widely debated.
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480. Thiamin
Thiamin, also spelled thiamine and previously known as vitamin B, is a micronutrient essential for the of that converts sugar into energy for the body and for normal nerve and heart function. Thiamine deficiency causes a condition known as beriberi or beri-beri. The initial symptoms are very vague. The first indication of thiamine deficiency may be simple fatigue. As the condition becomes more advanced, there is a wide range of symptoms, affecting many organ systems. These include, but are not limited to chest pains, memory loss, muscle cramps and weakness. In more advanced cases, muscle atrophy and heart failure may be present.
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481. Title page
No description given
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482. TLC Diet
Although there are several diets that will result in lowered LDL cholesterol, the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) set forth guidelines for medical professionals to follow when instructing patients on a medical nutrition option for lowering cholesterol. Termed the TLC diet or the Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes Diet it emphasizes heart healthy lifestyle choices.
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483. Toxemia
Toxemia is the presence of abnormal substances in the blood, but the term is also used in reference to a condition in pregnancy also known as This refers to pregnancy-induced hypertension () and any possible accompanying symptoms, such as quick or sudden weight gain, water retention, and excessive swelling of the feet, hands, and face. The condition is most common among first pregnancies, with multiple births (e.g., twins), in younger or older women, and in women who had preeclampsia in previous pregnancies. It generally occurs near the due date, but it can also occur earlier in pregnancy. When monitoring a female with toxemia, the and urine are checked often and bed rest may be prescribed. Toxemia can be mild or severe. When severe, it is dangerous for both the pregnant female and her child, especially if the mother's blood pressure gets too high.
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484. Trans Fatty Acids
fatty acids are unsaturated fatty acids with at least one double bond in the configuration. Unsaturated fatty acids are derived metabolically from saturated fatty acids by the abstraction of pairs of hydrogen atoms from adjacent methylene groups. The removal of a pair of hydrogen atoms gives rise to a double bond. The remaining hydrogen atoms can either be on the same side of the fatty acid molecule, in which case the double bond has the geometrical configuration, or on opposite sides giving the configuration. fatty acids occur naturally in a small amounts in a few foods, however, the majority are formed during the partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils. This process converts vegetable oils into semi-solid for use in margarines, commercial cooking, and manufacturing processes. There is strong evidence that the consumption of fatty acids from industrial sources increases the risk of (CHD).
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485. Traveler's Diarrhea
Traveler’s diarrhea is an increase in loose, watery stools that often occurs when travelers from industrialized countries travel to developing or underdeveloped countries. Traveler’s diarrhea has many nicknames such as Montezuma’s revenge, Tut’s tummy, or tourista.
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486. Triglycerides
Triglycerides are a form of fat, consisting of three molecules (’’tri’’) of a fatty acid combined with one molecule of the alcohol glycerol. Triglycerides serve as the backbone of many types of lipids Triglycerides are produced by the liver as well as are ingested as part of the diet. Fats in foods are digested and changed to triglycerides.
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487. Trim Kids
also known as Committed to Kids (CTK), is a twelve-week behavioral weight management program for adolescents. The program integrates behavior modification, nutrition education, and exercise to promote lifestyle changes that carry into adulthood. Parental involvement is crucial as parents must provide limitations and support to help their child achieve weekly goals.
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488. Tulp, Nicolaas
489. Ulcers
An ulcer is any area of skin or mucous membrane that erodes, causing the tissue to degenerate. In common use, ulcers refer to disorders such as these that occur in the upper digestive tract. They may be called gastric ulcers, peptic ulcers, or simply ulcers.
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490. Underweight
A person is considered underweight if his or her (BMI) falls below a certain threshold (body mass index is a measure determined by a person's age, height, and weight). For infants and children, a BMI below the 10th percentile for a specific age indicates an individual who is underweight. For adults, a BMI below 19.1 for females and 20.7 for males is considered underweight. A BMI of 17.5 indicates an individual is very underweight.
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491. United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
The United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) was created in 1946. It was renamed the United Nations Children's Fund in 1953, when the fund's focus changed from emergency aid to on going support of children's needs. The acronym UNICEF was retained, however. With eight regional offices and 125 country offices, UNICEF strives to create a world where all children share in the joy and promise of childhood with dignity, security, and self-fulfillment.
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492. USDA Food Guide Pyramid (MyPyramid)
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) food pyramid, called MyPyramid to distinguish it from earlier versions, contains recommendations on diet and exercise based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005.
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493. Vegan
A (pronounced VEE-gun) is a vegetarian who does not eat any animal products, including eggs and dairy products. A well-planned vegan can be nutritionally adequate, even for children and pregnant and lactating women. However, it is important that wise food selections are made. These selections include soymilk with vitamin B, , and . Also important are whole grains, nuts, and seeds, which are rich sources of and other . Foods high in vitamin C will help to increase .
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494. Veganism
Veganism (pronounced VEE-ganism), which is sometimes called strict or pure vegetarianism, is a lifestyle rather than a diet in the strict sense. The term itself was coined in 1944 by Donald Watson, a British vegan frustrated by the fact that most vegetarians saw nothing amiss with consuming eggs or dairy products. He derived vegan from combining the first three and the last two letters of the word vegetarian, maintaining that veganism represents “the beginning and the end of vegetarian.” The Vegan Society, which Watson and Elsie Shrigley co-founded in England during World War II, defines veganism as of 2007 as “a philosophy and way of living which seeks to exclude— as far as is possible and practical—all forms of exploitation of, and cruelty to, animals for food, clothing, or any other purpose.” November 1, the anniversary of the foundation of the Vegan Society, is observed annually as World Vegan Day.
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495. Vegetarianism
Vegetarianism refers to the practice of excluding meat, poultry, and fish from the diet. The word was coined in 1847, when the Vegetarian Society of the United Kingdom—the oldest organized vegetarian group in the world—was founded in Ramsgate, Kent. The Society, which has included George Bernard Shaw and Mahatma Gandhi among its members, chose the word for its name because it is derived from
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496. Vegetarianism
A vegetarian eating plan, also known as plant-based eating, is based on a diet of grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds, with occasional use of dairy and egg products. This style of eating has existed since the beginning of recorded history. As early as 600 B.C.E., a vegetarian movement was founded in ancient Rome. Vegetarian eating became popular in England and the United States in the mid-nineteenth century. For many individuals, their whole is defined by their vegetarian eating. In 1998, 7 percent of American adults considered themselves to be vegetarians.
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497. Vitamin A
Vitamin A is a fat-soluble organic compound that the body needs to remain healthy. Humans cannot make vitamin A, so they must get it from foods in their diet. Vitamin A is sometimes called retinol.
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498. Vitamin B
Vitamin B is a water-soluble organic compound that the body needs to remain healthy. Humans cannot make vitamin B, so they must get it from foods in their diet. Vitamin B is sometimes called pyridoxine.
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499. Vitamin B
Vitamin B is a water-soluble organic compound that the body needs to remain healthy. The only organisms that can make vitamin B are bacteria, fungi, yeast, molds, and algae. Humans must get it from foods in their diet. Vitamin B is sometimes called cobalamin.
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500. Vitamin C
Vitamin C, also called ascorbic acid or antiscorbutic vitamin, is a water-soluble organic compound needed to prevent scurvy. Scurvy is marked by beeding gums and bone malformation in children. Humans cannot make or store vitamin C, so they must get a steady supply of it from foods in their diet.
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501. Vitamin D
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble steroid compound that the body needs to remain healthy. In some ways, vitamin D is not a true vitamin because the skin can make vitamin D when exposed to sunlight. However, if the body does not make enough vitamin D, additional amounts must be acquired through diet.
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502. Vitamin E
Vitamin E is a fat-soluble organic compound that the body needs to remain healthy. Humans cannot make vitamin E, so they must get it from foods in their diet. Vitamin E comes in eight forms. The most biologically active form in humans is alpha-toco-pherol. Most vitamin E in is synthetically manufactured alpha-tocopherol.
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503. Vitamin K
Vitamin K is a fat-soluble organic compound that the body needs to remain healthy. Although bacteria in the human intestine make some vitamin K, it is not nearly enough to meet the body's needs, so people must get most of their vitamin K from foods in their diet.
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504. Vitamins
Vitamins are organic compounds found in plants and animals that are necessary in small quantities for life and health. Thirteen different vitamins have been identified as necessary for humans. The body can make small quantities of two of these vitamins, vitamins D and K. All other vitamins must be obtained either from food or from
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505. Vitamins, Fat-Soluble
Because they dissolve in , A, D, E, and K are called vitamins. They are absorbed from the small , along with dietary fat, which is why fat resulting from various diseases (e.g., cystic fibrosis, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease) is associated with poor of these vitamins. Fat-soluble vitamins are primarily stored in the liver and . With the exception of vitamin K, fat-soluble vitamins are generally excreted more slowly than vitamins, and vitamins A and D can accumulate and cause toxic effects in the body.
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506. Vitamins, Water-Soluble
are essential organic substances that are needed in small amounts in the for the normal function, growth, and maintenance of body tissues. vitamins consist of the and vitamin C. With exception of vitamin B and B, they are readily excreted in urine without appreciable storage, so frequent consumption becomes necessary. They are generally nontoxic when present in excess of needs, although symptoms may be reported in people taking megadoses of , vitamin C, or pyridoxine (vitamin B). All the B vitamins function as coenzymes or cofactors, assisting in the activity of important enzymes and allowing energy-producing reactions to proceed normally. As a result, any lack of water-soluble vitamins mostly affects growing or rapidly metabolizing tissues such as skin, blood, the digestive tract, and the . Water-soluble vitamins are easily lost with overcooking.
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507. Volumetrics
Volumetrics is a weight-management plan that encourages dieters to control calories while eating enough food to feel satisfied. People who eat according to the Volumetrics plan focus on eating water- and fiber-rich foods to achieve satiety, the feeling of fullness after a meal.
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508. Waist-to-Hip Ratio
Waist-to-hip ratio is defined as the measurement of waist circumference divided by hip circumference (for example, a waist measurement of 33 and a hip measurement of 44 give a ratio of .75). It is used as a risk-factor assessment tool for , , and type-2 . Excess body fat is considered a risk factor for the degenerative diseases, particularly abdominal fat, and the waist-to-hip ratio is used to determine the risk. A waist circumference of more than 40 inches in men and more than 35 inches in women, or a waist-to-hip ratio of more than 1.0 for men and more than 0.8 for women, indicate an increased risk for the above diseases.
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509. Warrior Diet
The Warrior diet is perhaps better described as a total exercise, nutrition, and fitness program; a diet regimen is only one part of the program. The diet is controversial on account of its proposal of a daily undereating/overeating cycle. The author of the diet claims that this daily undereating/overeating pattern is a natural biological tendency that modern humans ignore to the detriment of their long-term health. The diet's slogan is “It's when you eat that makes what you eat matter.”
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510. Water
Water is hydrogen oxide and it is composed of two molecules of hydrogen and one molecule of oxygen. It has a molecular weight of 18.016 and is the most universal solvent known.
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511. Water
Water is a colorless and odorless liquid made up of containing two of hydrogen and one atom of . Water is essential for all life to exist, as it makes up more than 70 percent of most living things. While a human can survive more than a week without food, a person will die within a few days without water.
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512. Weight Cycling
Weight cycling is losing weight by dieting, regaining that weight and possibly more within a few months to a year, dieting and losing weight again, then putting the weight back on. Weight cycling is also called yo-yo dieting. It is the opposite of weight maintenance.
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513. Weight Loss 4 Idiots
Weight Loss 4 Idiots is also known as Fat Loss 4 Idiots. It is an 11 day diet based around the idea that changing the type of calories eaten each day will trick the into burning fat.
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514. Weight Loss Diets
With over 50 percent of the population of the United States and other industrialized countries being either or , a great number of people want to lose weight. However, weight loss is not easy—and not often successful.
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515. Weight Management
is a condition, meaning it is unlikely to be cured, so interventions are needed to help people change their habits and improve their quality of life and their functioning. The goal of weight management for people is to help them improve their unhealthful dietary and habits.
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516. Weight Watchers
Weight Watchers is the largest commercial weight-loss program in the world. The diet is based on calorie and portion control while eating regular food, exercise, and behavior modification.
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517. Wellness
is a state of being in good health, both physically and mentally, and of being free of (and not at risk for) illness. To maintain wellness, individuals need to follow a regimen of periodic risk assessment and adopt behavior changes that lead to a lower risk of acquiring certain diseases. Wellness is the goal behind efforts at health promotion and disease prevention and includes physical fitness, optimal , and spiritual, social, and emotional health.
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518. White, Ellen G.
519. Whole Foods Diet
The term refers to foods that have not been processed or refined, including whole grains, beans, nuts, seeds, fruits, and vegetables. Whole foods contain compounds known as that may reduce the risk for many diseases. In addition, whole grains, such as brown rice and whole wheat, include the whole kernel of the germ, which includes elements such as that make them more nutritious than refined grains.
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520. WIC Program
The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is funded and administered by the Food and Nutrition Service of the United States Department of Agriculture in partnership with states and local agencies. Its purpose is to serve as an adjunct to good health care during critical times of growth and in order to prevent the occurrence of health problems. It serves pregnant and breastfeeding women, as well as children up to five years of age. Eligibility criteria include poverty and an identified medical or nutritional risk. Program benefits include nutritious foods, nutrition education, and referrals to maternal and child health services.
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521. Wilson, Owen
522. Women's Nutrition
Women have special nutritional needs due to hormonal changes that occur with menstruation, pregnancy, lactation, and menopause, all of which alter the recommended daily intake of nutrients. Of the many diseases that affect women, five have a scientific-based connection to nutrition: iron-deficiency anemia, osteoporosis, heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and some types of cancer. In addition, many women look to nutrition for the management of premenstrual and menopausal symptoms.
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523. Women's Nutritional Issues
Women have special nutritional needs due to hormonal changes that occur with menstruation, pregnancy, lactation, and , all of which alter the recommended daily intake of . Of the many diseases that affect women, five have a scientific-based connection to : iron-deficiency , , , type 2 , and some types of . In addition, many women look to nutrition for the management of premenstrual and symptoms.
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524. World Health Organization (WHO)
The World Health Organization (WHO), headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, is an international group of one hundred and ninety-one member states devoted to the maintenance and improvement of the health of all people throughout the world. Member states are divided into six geographic regions: Southeast Asia, the Eastern Mediterranean, the Americas, Africa, the Western Pacific, and Europe. The director general of the organization oversees the mission to preserve, maintain, and improve health through education, nutritional support, health activities, management of disease outbreaks, response to emergencies, and funding programs.
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525. Xerophthalmia
Xerophthalmia is a severe drying of the eye surface caused by a malfunction of the tear glands. Also found in people with immune disorders, it occurs most commonly because of decreased intake or of vitamin A. Symptoms include night blindness and eye irritation. In addition to the eyes being very dry, there is a loss of luster on their surface. At later stages, the corneas become soft, with increased .
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526. Yersinia
Yersinia is a bacterium that can contaminate food and is responsible for a foodborne disease called yersiniosis.
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527. Yo-Yo Dieting
Yo-yo dieting, or weight cycling, is the repeated losing and regaining of weight. This phenomenon is very common in societies that place an emphasis on being thin. People who lose weight through dieting often regain weight in a short time, and they often add more weight than they lost. Yo-yo dieting may increase the risk of developing , , and . It may also increase emotional distress and contribute to a sense of failure and low self-esteem.
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528. Zinc
Zinc is a trace element considered a micronutrient, meaning a nutrient needed in very small amounts. It is found in almost every living cell. The significance of zinc in human nutrition and public health was recognized relatively recently (1961) and it is now considered to have a wide range of essential biological roles in maintaining life and health.
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529. Zone Diet
The Zone diet is a high , low carbohydrate diet. It is based on the concept that if people eat an ideal balance of , proteins, and fats at every meal and snack, they will achieve hormonal balance. This will control insulin levels and result in weight loss and health benefits.
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