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Chromium

Definition

Chromium is a mineral that is essential to humans It is found naturally in a variety of foods, and supplements are available in capsules or tablets. Supplements are prepared using a number of formulas, including chromium (III), chromium aspartate, chromium chloride, chromium citrate, chromium nicotinate,

Chromium

AgeAdequate Intake (mcg/day)
Children 0–6 mos0.2
Children 7–12 mos5.5
Children 1–3 yrs11
Children 4–8 yrs15
Boys 9–13 yrs25
Girls 9–13 yrs21
Boys 14–18 yrs35
Girls 14–18 yrs24
Men 19–50 yrs35
Women 19–50 yrs25
Men 50< yrs30
Women 50< yrs20
Pregnant women 18≤ yrs29
Pregnant women 19≥ yrs30
Breastfeeding women 18≤ yrs44
Breastfeeding women 19≥ yrs45
FoodChromium (mcg)
Broccoli, ½ cup11
Grape juice, 1 cup8
English muffin, whole wheat, 14
Garlic, dried, 1 tsp3
Potatoes, mashed, 1 cup3
Basil, dried, 1 tbsp2
Beef cubes, 3 oz2
Orange juice, 1 cup2
Turkey breast, 3 oz2
Whole wheat bread, 2 slices2
Red wine, 5 oz1–13
Apple, unpeeled, 1 med1
Banana, 1 med1
Green beans, ½ cup1
mcg = microgram 

(Illustration by GGS Information Services/Thomson Gale.)

chromium picolinate, GTF chromium, and trivalent chromium.

Purpose

Chromium supports the normal function of insulin, which is a hormone secreted by the pancreas. Insulin helps transport glucose from the bloodstream into liver, muscle, and fat cells. Once it is inside these cells, the sugar is metabolized into a source of energy. Insulin is also involved in regulating protein, fat, and catalytic enzyme processes. People with diabetes do not produce insulin (or produce very little) or their bodies cannot properly use the insulin that is produced. As a result, sugar builds up in the bloodstream, causing serious health effects. Numerous scientific studies have shown that chromium is useful in treating insulin resistance (metabolic syndrome) and diabetes. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy, a form of nerve damage that is a direct result of diabetes, is indirectly related to a lack of sufficient chromium.

Description

Several studies have shown that chromium supplements may improve insulin sensitivity, and lower blood glucose and elevated body fat. In February 2004, the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine began a comprehensive study of chromium as a therapy for insulin resistance. This condition occurs when the body fails to respond properly to the insulin it already produces. People who are insulin resistant may have the ability to overcome this problem by producing more insulin. However, if the body cannot produce sufficient amounts of insulin, glucose levels in the bloodstream rise, and type 2 diabetes ultimately occurs. It is estimated that up to 80 million Americans have insulin resistance.

A study conducted by Isala Clinics and University Hospital Groningen in the Netherlands, and released in 2003, showed that a daily dose of 1,000 micrograms of chromium significantly reduced blood sugar levels in people with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes who use insulin.

Chromium has also been used as an effective treatment for polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), a hormonal condition affecting about two million American women. The condition can lead to infertility if untreated, and is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. A study released in 2003 by the State University of New York at Stony Brook showed that insulin sensitivity increased an average of 35% after two months of daily treatment with 1,000 micro-grams (mcg) of chromium.

Through its involvement with insulin function, chromium plays an indirect role in lowering blood lipids. Studies suggest, but have not proven, that chromium supplementation can reduce the risk of cardiovascular (heart) disease in men, and may decrease total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. However, several studies contradict these claims. Studies in animals suggest chromium supplementation may reduce hypertension (high blood pressure). Lipid reduction is secondary to insulin regulation and control; therefore, persons whose insulin is well regulated and controlled may not achieve reduced heart disease risk by taking chromium supplements.

Chromium supplements in high doses—1,000 mcg or more a day—are sometimes used in weight loss and muscle development. However, a number of scientific studies have found that chromium supplements are not effective in these areas. In fact, precautions warn against chromium doses exceeding 1,000 mcg per day. Weight loss and muscle development are secondary to insulin regulation and control. Therefore, when insulin

KEY TERMS

Calcium carbonate—A salt that is used in many antacids.

YDiabetes—Several metabolic disorders in which the body produces insufficient insulin.

Glucose—Sugar.

Hypertension—High blood pressure, which, if untreated, can lead to heart disease and stroke.

Insomnia—The inability to sleep.

Insulin—A hormone that helps liver, muscle and fat cells take up sugars, starches, and other foods for conversion into energy the body needs.

Insulin resistance1—Also called metabolic syndrome, a condition in which the body fails to properly respond to the insulin it produces.

Polycystic ovarian syndrome—PCOS, a hormonal condition in women that if untreated can lead to the inability to have children.

is well regulated and controlled, chromium may not impact weight loss or muscle development.

A complete lack of chromium is rare, and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not established recommended dietary allowances (RDA) for the mineral. However, national statistics on the prevalence of diabetes, heart disease, and obesity suggest that chromium deficiencies may be common. Chromium occurs naturally in meat, seafood, dairy products, eggs, whole grains, black pepper, and almonds. According to The PDR Family Guide to Natural Medicines and Healing Therapies, the usual chromium supplement dose for children ages seven and older and adults is 50–200 mcg a day in tablets or capsules. For persons with type 2 diabetes who are not taking insulin, doses from 200–1,000 mcg daily may be taken. However, persons should only take doses at these levels after consulting with a physician. Chromium should not be taken in doses exceeding 1,000 mcg a day. The cost of a bottle of 100 tablets or capsules (200 mcg) of chromium picolinate ranges from $5 to $10.

Interactions

Persons who are taking antacids are advised to talk with a physician before taking chromium supplements. Studies in animals suggest that antacids, especially those containing calcium carbonate, may reduce the body’s ability to absorb chromium. Studies have shown that chromium may enhance the effectiveness of drugs taken by people who have type 2 diabetes or insulin resistance. These drugs include glimepiride, glipizide, glyburide, insulin, and metformin. Individuals taking these drugs should discuss chromium supplementation with a physician because improved insulin function may necessitate medication dosage changes.

Complications

Several studies have noted occasional reports of irregular heartbeats with chromium use. Infrequently, chromium has been reported to cause such sleep pattern changes as insomnia and increased dream activity. Irritability has also been reported. In rare instances, persons may be allergic to a chromium formula. The symptoms of an allergic reaction include difficulty breathing, chest pain, hives, rash, and itchy or swollen skin. If this happens, the patient is advised to seek medical care immediately. High doses may also cause liver and kidney damage, or gastric irritation, although these side effects are rare.

BOOKS

Brown, Donald J. Herbal Prescriptions for Health and Healing: Your Everyday Guide to Using Herbs Safely and Effectively Twin Lakes, WI: Lotus Press, 2003.

Evans, Gary. All About Chromium Picolinate: Frequently Asked Questions Garden City Park, NY: Avery, 1999.

Icon Health Publications. Chromium Picolinate: A Medical Dictionary, Bibliography, and Annotated Research Guide to Internet References San Diego, CA: Icon Health Publications, 2003.

Kamen, Betty. The Chromium Connection: A lesson in Nutrition Novato, CA: Nutrition Encounter Inc., 1995.

Passwater, Richard A. Chromium Picolinate New York,NY: McGraw-Hill/Contemporary Books; Reprint Edition, 1995.

PERIODICALS

Biotech Week Editors and Staff. “Company Seeks FDA Approval of Health Claims for Chromium.” Biotech Week (January 28, 2004): 308. “Chromium.” UC Berkeley Wellness Letter (July 2003): 3.

Drug Week Editors and Staff. “Chromium Picolinate May Benefit Patients with Insulin Resistance.” Drug Week (December 26, 2003): 121.

Drug Week Editors and Staff. “Research: Lower Chromium Levels Linked to Increased Risk of Disease.” Drug Week (April 2, 2004): 263.

Lamson, Davis W., and Steven M. Plaza. “The Safety and Efficacy of High-Dose Chromium. Alternative Medicine Review (June 2002): 218–236.

Lydic, Michael L., et al. “Effects of Chromium Supplementation on Insulin Sensitivity and Reproductive Function in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Pilot Study.” Fertility and Sterility (Supplement 3) (September 2003): 45–46.

Volpe, Stella L., et al. “Effect of Chromium Supplementation and Exercise on Body Composition, Resting Metabolic Rate, and Selected Biochemical Parameters in Moderately Obese Women Following an Exercise Program.” Journal of the American College of Nutrition (August 2001): 293–306.

Ward, Elizabeth M. “Top 10 Supplements for Men.” Men’s Health (December 2003): 106.

Ken R. Wells


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