Encyclopedia Of Diets

 

 



 

The Encyclopedia of Diets is a one-stop source for comprehensive, in-depth and authoritative information on diets and nutrition. This encyclopedia examines special diets such as a Gluten-free or high protein diet, dieting and popular weight-loss programs such as the Atkins Diet, dietary concerns, nutritional basics, and some effects of a person's dietary choices on one's health.



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1. 3-Day Diet
There are a variety of three-day diets that circulate from person to person and on the Internet. They tend to promise weight loss of 10 lb (4.5 kg) or more in just three days. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
2. 3-Hour Diet
The 3-Hour diet is based on the concept that weight loss is best achieved by eating small amounts frequently, in this case, every three hours. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
3. Abs diet
The Abs diet is a six-week plan that combines nutrition and exercise. It emphasizes twelve power foods that are the staples of the diet. It focuses on building muscle through strength training, aerobic exercises, and a dietary balance of proteins, , and fat. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
4. Acne diet
The acne diet or more accurately, the acne-free diet, is simply a way of eating claims to improves or eliminates acne. There is some debate in the medical community about the impact of diet on acne; however, there is a body of evidence to support the idea that what is eaten may affect the skin. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
5. ADHD diet
Attention deficit disorder (ADHD) is defined as the combination of inattentive, hyperactive and impulsive behavior which are severe, developmentally inappropriate, and impair function at home and in school. Common features include mood swings, anxiety, impulsivity, hostility, poor concentration and sleeping disorders, along with physical complaints such as headaches, migraines, and stomach upsets. ADHD individuals are also more likely to have been of low birth weight and to have allergies or auto-immune problems. Proportionally more males than females are affected, with inattention tending to be a more female trait and hyperactivity more common in males. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
6. Adolescent nutrition
Nutrition describes the processes by which all of the food a person eats are taken in and the nutrients that the body needs are absorbed. Good nutrition for adolescents can help prevent disease and promote proper health, growth, and development. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
7. Adult nutrition
Nutrition describes the processes by which all of the food a person eats are taken in and the nutrients that the body needs are absorbed. Good nutrition can help prevent disease and promote health. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
8. African diet
Africa, the second largest continent in the world, is rich in geographic and cultural diversity. It is a land populated by peoples with histories dating to ancient times and cultures shaped by innumerable tribes, languages, and traditions. Because it is the birthplace of and the land of origin for much of the world’s population, the culture of food and eating in the different regions of Africa is important to people throughout the world. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
9. African-American diet
The 2000 U.S. Census revealed that there were almost 35 million African Americans, or about 13%of the total U.S. population. This small percentage of the populace has had a significant influence on American cuisine, not only because African-American food is diverse and flavorful, but also because of its historical beginnings. Despite their cultural, political, economic, and racial struggles, African Americans have retained a strong sense of their culture, which is, in part, reflected in their food. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
10. AIDS/HIV infection
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a complex illness caused by a retrovirus, which is a single-strand virus that replicates by using reverse transcription to produce copies of DNA that become incorporated within the genome of the host cell. The HIV virus destroys a type of white blood cell known as CD4+ T lymphocytes, or T helper cells. These cells are important in maintaining the various functions of the human immune system. When the level of CD4+ T cells in the bloodstream falls, the patient loses the ability to fight off bacteria, viruses, and fungi that would not cause disease in a person with a strong immune system. Infections that occur in people with weakened immune systems are called opportunistic infections. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
11. Alcohol consumption
Alcohol consumption is drinking beer, wine, or distilled spirits such as gin, whiskey, or vodka, that contains ethyl alcohol. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
12. American Diabetes Association
American Diabetes Association (ADA) PO Box 363 Mount Morris, IL 61054-0363 USA Toll-Free: (800) 342-2383 or 1-800-DIABETES E-mail: askada @diabetes.org Website: read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
13. American Dietetic Association
ADA Location Headquarters 120 South Riverside Plaza, Suite 2000 Chicago, Illinois 60606 Phone: 800/877-1600 read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
14. Anne Collins weight loss program
The Anne Collins weight loss program is a weight loss system accessed on-line after payment of a yearly subscription fee. The system consists of nine separate diet plans plus advice regarding nutrition, exercise, and specific physical disorders; an on-line support community; and personal advice available through e-mail. There are no diet foods, nutritional supplements, appetite suppressants, exercise equipment, or any other products sold as part of the system. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
15. Anorexia nervosa
Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder that involves self-imposed starvation. The individual is obsessed with becoming increasingly thinner and limits food intake to the point where health is compromised. Anorexia nervosa can be fatal. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
16. Anti-aging diet
The anti-aging diet is one that restricts calorie intake by 30–50% of normal or recommended intake with the goal of increasing human lifespan by at least 30%. People on the diet also have improved health providing they consume adequate , and other essential nutrients. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
17. Anti-inflammatory diets
There is no one anti-inflammatory diet, rather, there are diets designed around foods that are believed to decrease inflammation and which shun foods that aggravate the inflammatory processes. Many anti-inflammatory diets are based around whole grains, legumes, nuts, seeds, fresh vegetables and fruits, wild fish and seafood, grass-fed lean turkey and chicken which are thought to aid in the bodies healing of inflammation. They exclude foods that are thought read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
18. Antioxidants
Antioxidants are molecules that prevent oxygen molecules from interacting with other molecules in a process called oxidation. In the body, antioxidants combine with potentially damaging molecules called free radicals to prevent the free radicals from causing damage to cell membranes, DNA, and proteins in the cell. Common antioxidants important to human health are A, C, E, beta-carotene, and In the mid-2000s, about 20% of North Americans and Europeans were taking at least one antioxidant dietary supplement. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
19. Arthritis diet
Arthritis is the general medical term for the inflammation of a joint or a disorder characterized by suchinflammation. There are a number of different arthritides (the plural form of arthritis), and therefore there is no “arthritis diet” as such that has been proposed as a treatment for all these different joint disorders. Dietary therapies for osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the two most commonforms of arthritis, fall into three major categories: mainstream management strategies that focus on weight reduction and well-balanced diets as a way to relieve stress on damaged joints and slow the progression of arthritis; of various types that have been evaluated in clinical trials and have been found to benefit at least some patients; and alternative medical approaches that rely on dietary adjustments (including ) and/or traditional herbal remedies to treat arthritis. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
20. Artificial preservatives
Artificial preservatives are a group of chemical substances added to food, sprayed on the outside of food, or added to certain medications to retard spoilage, discoloration, or contamination by bacteria and other disease organisms. Most preservatives are categorized by the federal government as , which are defined by the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C) of 1938 as “any substance, the intended use of which results directly or indirectly, in its becoming a component or otherwise affecting the characteristics of food.” A subcategory of food preservatives are classified as (GRAS), which means that the government accepts the current scientific consensus on their safety, based on either their use prior to 1958 or to well-known scientific information. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
21. Artificial sweeteners
Artificial sweeteners, which are also called sugar substitutes, alternative sweeteners, or non-sugar sweeteners, are substances used to replace sugar in foods and beverages. They can be divided into two large groups: nutritive sweeteners, which add some energy value (calories) to food; and nonnutritive sweeteners, which are also called high-intensity sweeteners because they are used in very small quantities as well as adding no energy value to food. Nutritive sweeteners include the natural sugars—sucrose (table sugar; a compound of glucose and fructose), fructose (found in fruit as well as table sugar), and galactose (milk sugar)—as well as the polyols, which are a group of carbohydrate compounds that are not sugars but provide about half the calories of the natural sugars. The polyols are sometimes called sugar replacers, read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
22. Asian diet
The Asian diet is an ancient and time honored way of eating. For thousands of years people of the Asian world have eaten a diet based on plant foods such as rice, vegetables, and fresh fruits. Unlike Western diets, meat is rarely the main dish of any meal but rather an accent and flavor compliment. Fish is often eaten in main courses. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
23. Atkins diet
The Atkins diet is named for Robert C. Atkins, M.D., the diet’s founder. It is based on restrictions of and focuses on eating mostly and fat, along with use of vitamin and mineral supplements. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
24. Bariatric surgery
Bariatric surgery is a surgical weight-loss procedure that reduces or bypasses the stomach or small intestine so that severely overweight people can achieve significant and permanent weight loss. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
25. Bernstein diet
The Bernstein diet is a low-carbohydrate, for people with diabetes (diabetics). It goes against the conventional high-carbohydrate, low-fat diabetic diet recommended by much of the medical community. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
26. Beverly Hills diet
The Beverly Hills diet is a diet created by Judy Mazel. She believes that weight loss can be achieved by eating foods in the proper combinations and in the correct order. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
27. Binge eating
Binge eating an abnormal eating pattern in which an individual eats significantly more food in a limited time than most people typically would eat. The time-frame for a binge is usually 1–2 hours. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
28. Bioengineered foods
Bioengineered foods are foods that have had a gene from a different species of plant or other organism introduced to produce desired characteristics or traits. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
29. Biotin
Biotin, also known as vitamin H or vitamin B, belongs to the group of -complex water-soluble . Humans make only a small amount of biotin, so most biotin must come from the foods they eat. Biotin is involved in conversion of and into usable energy in the body. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
30. Blood type diet
The Blood Type diet is a way of eating that relies on an individual’s blood type (A, B, AB, or O) to dictate one’s diet. In his book, Eat Right for Your Blood Type, naturopathic doctor Peter D’Adamo, presents the idea that an individual’s blood type determines which foods are healthy for him and which foods are not. The book presents the anthropological origins of each of the four blood types and explains why each blood type developed specific antibodies against certain foods. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
31. Bob Greene's diet
Bob Greene’s diet is two separate but similar programs with two different websites is divided into four phases: Truth, commitment, and self-control; Revving up your Getting real about emotional eating; and Securing a life of health and emotional well-being. The Best Life Diet is comprised of three phases: establishing a regular pattern of exercise and eating; exploring the physical and emotional reasons for hunger; and learning weight management for life. Both programs are moderate and nutritionally balanced weight loss regimens combined with an exercise program and psychological introspection. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
32. Body for Life diet
Body for Life is a 12-week diet and rigorous exercise program designed by former competitive bodybuilder Bill Phillips. The program promises those who follow it faithfully that after 12 weeks they will not only have lost about 25 lb (10 kg) if they are read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
33. Body image
Body image is a person’s mental opinion or description of his or her own physical appearance. It also involves the reactions of others toward that person’s physical body based on what is perceived by that person. The concept of body image slowly develops read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
34. Body mass index
Body mass index (BMI), also called the Quetelet Index, is a calculation used to determine an individual’s amount of body fat. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
35. Bodybuilding diet
The bodybuilding diet is designed to build muscle and reduce body fat. It emphasizes foods high in and complex such as whole grain bread, pasta, and cereal. There are many variations of the bodybuilding diet but an essential component remains the same throughout, a regular strength-building exercise building program. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
36. Breastfeeding
Breastfeeding is the practice of feeding an infant milk through the mother’s breast. According to La Leche League International (LLLI), human milk is ’a living fluid that protects babies from disease and actively contributes to the development of every system in baby’s body”’. Breastfeeding stimulates babies’ immune systems and protects against diarrhea and infection. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
37. British Heart Foundation diet
The British Heart Foundation diet is a three day diet that claims to allow dieters to lose 10 pounds in three days if they follow the diet’s specific meal plan. It was not created by nor is it endorsed by the British Heart Foundation. . read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
38. Bulimia nervosa
Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder that involves repeated followed by purging the body of calories to avoid gaining weight. The person who has bulimia has an irrational fear of gaining weight and a distorted Bulimia nervosa can have potentially fatal health consequences. . read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
39. Cabbage Soup Diet
The cabbage soup diet is a quick weight loss program intended to be followed for seven days. The centerpiece of the diet is a recipe for cabbage soup, which the dieter may consume in unlimited quantities. In addition to the cabbage soup, there are certain other foods the dieter must eat on specific days during the week. There are several versions of the diet, most of which promise a 10-17 lb weight loss during the week. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
40. Caffeine
Caffeine is a mild alkaloid stimulant made by some plants. It is found in coffee beans, tea leaves, and cocao beans, added to soft drinks, energy drinks, energy bars, and sold in capsules and tablets as a dietary supplement. Caffeine has no nutritional value. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
41. Calcium
Calcium (Ca) is the most abundant mineral in the body. About 99% of calcium in the body is in bones and teeth. The remaining 1% is in blood and soft tissue. Calcium in body fluids is an electrolyte with a charge of + 2. Humans must meet their need for calcium through diet. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
42. Calorie Restriction
The definition of calorie restriction is when the body does not receive an adequate intake of energy. This can result as a consequence of lack of availability of adequate volumes of food. However, sometimes the failure to consume an adequate calorie intake may be a conscious and deliberate decision, for example, in individuals seeking to lose weight or people who suffer with the eating disorder, . Calorie restriction can result in malnutrition or a deficiency of one or more nutrients. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
43. Cambridge Diet
The Cambridge diet is a commercial very-low-calorie diet (VLCD). The diet was first used only in weight-loss clinics in the United Kingdom. In the early 1980s, the products associated with the diet (powder mix, meal bars, and liquid meals) started selling commercially in the United States and the United Kingdom. Formulations of the Cambridge diet in the United Kingdom differ from that sold in the United States. In both the United Kingdom and North America, the Cambridge products are available only from distributors; they cannot be purchased over the counter at pharmacies or supermarkets. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
44. Cancer
Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled growth of cells in the human body and the ability of these cells to travel from the original site and spread to distant sites. Another name for cancer cells is malignant cells. Diet and nutrition play an important role in cancer prevention and cancer treatment. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
45. Cancer-Fighting Foods
It appears more than ever, that there is a great deal of truth to the philosophy of eating fruits and vegetables to maintain optimum health. It is not only because of the nutrients they contain in the form of and also because of the chemicals found in these foods. Scientists continue to extensively study the nutrient quality and quantity of foods we consume. Although scientists are still not certain about the specifics, they’re beginning to close in on the healthful constituents of plant-based foods. In particular, they’re looking closely at two components: phytochemicals and The goal is to determine precisely how and why these substances in fruits and vegetables can prevent or stop the development of tumors and When animals are given vegetables and fruits before being exposed to carcinogen (cancer-causing agents), they are less likely to develop cancer. Although additional experimental data needs to be collected in humans, there is evidence to suggest that consuming generous amounts of fruits and vegetables plays an important role in preventing cancer. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
46. Carbohydrate Addict's Diet
The carbohydrate addict’s diet is an eating plan that emphasizes foods low in (carbs). It is based on the theory that some people develop unmanageable for high-carb foods due to the pancreas producing too much insulin, leading to weight gain. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
47. Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are compounds that consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, linked together by energy-containing bonds. There are two types of carbohydrates: complex and simple. The complex carbohydrates, such as starch and are classified as read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
48. Caribbean Islander Diet
Travel advertisements for the Caribbean Islands portray long stretches of sun-drenched beaches and swaying palm trees, with people dancing to jazz, calypso, reggae, or meringue music. Indeed, the beauty, warmth, and lush landscapes had Christopher Columbus in awe in 1492 when he came upon these tropical islands, stretching approximately 2,600 miles between Florida and Venezuela. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
49. Carotenoids
Carotenoids are fat-soluble plant pigments, some of which are important to human health. The most common carotenoids in the diet of North Americans are alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
50. Caveman Diet
The caveman diet is a diet that is intended to mimic, as closely as possible, the way that the ancestors of humans ate more than 10,000 years ago. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
51. Celiac Disease
Celiac disease, also known as sprue, celiac sprue, nontropical sprue, and gluten-sensitive enteropathy, is a life-long autoimmune disease in which the body’s reaction to gluten causes damage to the intestines that results in poor absorption of nutrients. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
52. Central American and Mexican Diet
The diets of peoples in Mexico and Central America (Guatemala, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, Belize, and Costa Rica) have several commonalities, though within the region great differences in methods of preparation and in local recipes exist. The basis of the traditional diet in this part of the world is corn (maize) and beans, with the addition of meat, animal products, local fruits, and vegetables. As in other parts of the world, the diet of people in this area has expanded to include more processed foods. In many parts of Mexico and Central America, access to a variety of foods remains limited, and undernutrition, particularly among children, is a major problem. Although access to an increased variety of foods can improve the adequacy of both macronutrient and micronutrient status, there is evidence that the use of processed foods is contributing to the rapidly increasing prevalence of and diet-related chronic diseases such as diabetes. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
53. Central European and Russian Diet
A health gap separates Central and Eastern Europe from the United States, Canada, Japan, and the Western part of Europe. This East-West gap in health started during the 1960s. Almost half of this gap was due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality differentials. There has been a marked increase of CVD in Central and Eastern Europe, which is only partially explainable by the high prevalence of the three traditional CVD risk factors (hypercholesterolemia, , and smoking) in these countries. There is an extreme nonhomogeneity of the former Soviet bloc, and the data from each country must be analyzed individually. The aim here is to present the latest available data, which show the health status of various regions of postcommunist Europe. All data used are taken from the World Health Organization (WHO) Health for All Database (as updated in June 2003). The last available data from most countries are from the year 2002. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
54. Changeone Diet
The aim of “ChangeOne: Lose Weight Simply, Safely, and Forever” is to provide a simple, straightforward plan for gradual, permanent weight loss. The book features a twelve-week eating plan that outlines portion sizes, recipes and meal suggestions designed to achieve weight loss. A major distinguishing feature of the ChangeOne plan is its emphasis on making lifestyle changes gradually over a three month interval, rather than advocating a complete, abrupt transformation of existing eating patterns. The diet is based on everyday foods, both home-prepared and available in restaurants and does not require purchase of special foods or supplements. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
55. Chicken Soup Diet
The chicken soup diet is a seven day diet that allows the dieter to eat one of five approved breakfasts each day and as much chicken soup as desired. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
56. Childhood Nutrition
Childhood nutrition refers to the dietary needs of healthy children aged 2 years through 11 years of age. Since children younger than 2 years of age and children over the age of 11 years of age have unique nutritional requirements and concerns, the focus of this summary is primarily on healthy children aged 2 to 11 years. (Children with special health care needs and who have special dietary needs require additional guidance beyond what will be discussed and should seek the skills of a Pediatrician or a Registered Dietitian). read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
57. Childhood Obesity
Childhood is the condition of being overweight or severely overweight which causes risks to health between the ages of 2 and 19. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
58. Children's Diets
Because children grow at different rates and at different times, it becomes harder to distinguish if a child is overweight compared to establishing overweight in adults. To determine if a child is within an un-healthy weight range, a doctor will use certain criteria to measure a child’s height and weight. The (BMI), expressed as body weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters (kg/m2), is a weight-for-height index. The BMI is the standard assessment in adults, and its use within the pediatric population has limited research to support its effectiveness is still considered the standard measure of overweight in children. The International read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
59. Chocolate Diet
The Chocolate diet is a weight-loss plan that includes the daily consumption of limited amounts of chocolate. The phrase “chocolate diet” also signifies the consumption of chocolate because of claims of health benefits such as lowering cholesterol. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
60. Choline
Choline is a nutrient required by the body. It does not meet the classic definition of a vitamin because the body makes some choline, but not enough to support health. The remainder must be acquired through diet. For practical purposes, choline is grouped with the B-complex because it is a water-soluble compound that performs some functions similar to these vitamins. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
61. Chromium
Chromium is a mineral that is essential to humans It is found naturally in a variety of foods, and supplements are available in capsules or tablets. Supplements are prepared using a number of formulas, including chromium chromium aspartate, chromium chloride, chromium citrate, chromium nicotinate, read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
62. Cleveland Clinic 3-Day Diet
The Cleveland Clinic three-day diet is a very low-calorie diet or quick weight loss program intended to be followed, as the name indicates, for three days. There are certain foods (e.g., specific vegetables, hot dogs, vanilla ice cream, and saltine crackers) that the dieter must eat on specific days during the three-day period, although some versions of the diet allow substitutions. Most Internet versions of this diet promise a 10 lb (4.5 kg) weight loss over the first three days, or 40 lb (18 kg) if the diet is followed for a month. The Cleveland Clinic diet plan is primarily available on the Internet. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
63. Constipation
Constipation is a symptom characterized by either having fewer than three bowel movements a week or having difficulty passing stools that are often hard, small, and dry. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
64. Copper
Copper is essential for normal development of the body because it: read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
65. Coronary Heart Disease
Coronary heart disease is the narrowing or blockage of the arteries and vessels that provide oxygen and nutrients to the heart. It is caused by a condition called atherosclerosis, which is the gradual buildup of fatty materials on the arteries” inner linings. The blockage that results from the buildup restricts blood flow to the heart. When the blood flow is completely cut off, a heart attack can occur. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
66. Cravings
Most people, at some time, have a strong desire for some particular food, such as ice cream or pizza. Such a desire for a particular food, even when one is not hungry, is called a craving. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
67. Crohn's Disease
Crohn’s disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder that affects the digestive tract. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
68. Csiro Total Wellbeing Diet
The CSIRO total wellbeing diet (TWD) is a high-protein, low-fat, moderate-carbohydrate weight-loss and maintenance diet developed by Australia’s national science agency, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO). It is a very structured, calorie-controlled, and nutritionally balanced diet that includes exercise and large amounts of protein from meat, fish, and poultry. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
69. Dash Diet
DASH stands for the Dietary Approaches to Stop . The DASH diet is based on DASH Study results published in 1997. The study showed that a diet rich in fruits, vegetables and low fat dairy foods, with reduced saturated and total fat could substantially lower blood pressure. It is the diet recommended by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (part of the National Institute of Health) for lowering blood pressure. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
70. Dean Ornish's Eat More, Weigh Less
Dean Ornish’s Eat More, Weigh Less diet focuses on eating a diet of plant products low in fat, oils, and simple to achieve weight loss and better health without feelings of deprivation and hunger. It also emphasizes stress reduction techniques and light exercise. Dean Ornish, M.D. not only recommends this style of diet for weight loss, but also believes it can prevent and even reverse some forms of heart disease. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
71. Dehydration
Dehydration is a condition in which the body looses too much usually as a result of excess sweating, vomiting, and/or diarrhea. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
72. Denise Austin Fit Forever
Denise Austin’s Fit Forever is an Internet based diet and exercise program that focuses on developing a personalized plan for healthy eating and an active lifestyle. Individuals who join the Fit Forever program receive customized exercise regimens based on their body type; daily meal plans and recipes; as well as motivational assistance in the form or support groups, testimonials, and information on creating a healthier lifestyle. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
73. Detoxification Diets
Detoxification diets, or detox diets for short, are a group of short-term diets intended to release accumulated toxins and waste products from the body. They are based on a theory of digestion and elimination usually associated with naturopathy, an alternative medical system that emphasizes the role of nutrition in restoring or improving the body’s own self-healing properties. In general, detox diets emphasize the following: read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
74. Dhea
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a precursor (prohormone) of the sex hormones estrogen and testosterone. It is a steroid produced naturally by the adrenal glands and is also sold as a dietary supplement. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
75. Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes mellitus is a condition in which the pancreas no longer produces enough insulin or cells stop responding to the insulin that is produced, so that glucose in the blood cannot be absorbed into the cells of the body. Symptoms include frequent urination, lethargy, excessive thirst, and hunger. The treatment includes changes in diet, oral medications, and in some cases, daily injections of insulin. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
76. Diarrhea Diet
A diarrhea diet is used to help alleviate diarrhea, a condition characterized by unusually frequent bowel movements and excessive evacuations of watery stools. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
77. Diet Drugs
Diet drugs are medications that may help obese people lose weight when the drugs are used together with a program of diet and exercise. Historically, many drugs have been used as weight loss aids, and some ineffective products have been marketed with claims of helping in a program of weight loss. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
78. Dietary Cholesterol
Cholesterol is a soft, white, waxy substance found in the lipids of the bloodstream and in the cells of the body. There are two sources of cholesterol. The first is the body, mainly the liver, which produces typically read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
79. Dietary Guidelines
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans are the foundation of national nutrition policy for the United States. They are designed to help Americans make food choices that promote health and reduce the risk of disease. The guidelines are published jointly by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). The first set of guidelines was published as in 1980. Since then, an advisory committee has been appointed every five years to review and revise the guidelines based on the latest research in nutrition and health. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
80. Dietary Reference Intakes
Dietary reference intakes (DRI) are a set of reference values for and other nutrients important to human health. DRIs provide guidance about the appropriate amount of each nutrient that should be consumed based on American and Canadian diets. DRIs are specific to age group, gender, and for women, reproductive status. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
81. Dietary Supplements
In the United States, dietary supplements are defined by the 1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act as products that are not used exclusively as food, but are intended to be consumed in addition to an individual’s diet. The law states that dietary supplements are taken by mouth and contain. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
82. Dietwatch
Dietwatch is an online weight loss program that focuses on helping dieters lose weight at a moderate, healthy pace through healthy eating, regular exercise, and motivational support. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
83. Digestive Diseases
Digestive diseases, also called gastrointestinal diseases, are the diseases that affect the digestive system, which consists of the organs and pathways and processes responsible for processing food in the body. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
84. Diuretics and Diets
Diuretics are a group of drugs given to help the body eliminate excess fluid through the kidneys in order to treat (high blood pressure), kidney and liver disorders, glaucoma, congestive heart failure (CHF), and idiopathic intracranial hypertension (pseudotumor cerebri), a condition characterized by increased fluid pressure within the blood vessels supplying the brain. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
85. Diverticular Disease Diet
A diverticular disease diet is a diet that increases dietary to recommended levels. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
86. Dr. Feingold Diet
The Dr. Feingold diet is a diet that eliminates many different forms of additives and other compounds from the diet. It is intended to reduce the symptoms of Attention Deficit Disorder and Attention Deficit Disorder. Many proponents of the diet suggest that it can be used to improve other common problems as well. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
87. Dr. Phil's Diet
Dr. Phil’s diet is named for Dr. Phillip C. McGraw, Ph.D., the psychologist and life strategist seen on syndicated television. Popularly known as “Dr. Phil’ he developed a line of “Shape Up!’ weight loss products and simultaneously developed and published a book titled “The Ultimate Weight Loss Solution: The 7 Keys to Weight Loss Freedom.” read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
88. Dyspepsia
Dyspepsia is gastric upset due to the inability to digest one’s food. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
89. Eating disorders
Eating disorders are psychiatric illnesses that result in abnormal eating patterns that have a negative effect on health. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
90. Eating for Life
Eating for Life refers to a diet and nutrition plan that recommends eating six small, low-fat meals daily, popularized in the 2003 book , written by Bill Phillips. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
91. Echinacea
Echinacea is a perennial plant native to North America that is farmed in both the United States and Europe for use in . Echinacea is a genus in the aster family containing nine plant species. Three species, , and are used in complementary and alternative medicine in the United States and Europe. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
92. eDiets
The eDiets.com website provides information on several diet programs, fitness regimens, as well as support from health professionals. The term e-diets may be used to describe any diet program found on the internet. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
93. Electrolytes
Electrolytes are ions that form when salts dissolve in or fluids. These ions have an electric charge. Positively charged ions are called cations. Negatively charged ions are called anions. Electrolytes are not evenly distributed within the body, and their uneven distribution allows many important metabolic reactions to occur. (Na ), Potassium (), (Ca2+), (Mg2+ ), chloride (Cl-), phosphate (HPO42-), bicarbonate (HCO3-), and Sulfate (SO4-) are important electrolytes in humans. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
94. Elimination diets
Elimination diets are diets in which people stop eating specific foods for a period and then challenge their body by adding the food back into their diet and evaluating how the body responds. Elimination diets are used to detect food allergies and food intolerances. They are not nutritionally balanced and are intended to be used only for diagnostic purposes. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
95. Encopresis
Encopresis is defined as the repeated passage or leaking of feces in inappropriate places in a child over 4 years of age that is not caused by a physical illness or disability. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
96. Ephedra
Ephedra is a genus of plants found worldwide. One species, or Chinese ephedra, has a long history of use in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). In the late twentieth century, ephedra gained popularity as a weight-loss supplement. The herb can cause life-threatening side effects, and since April 2004, sale of products containing ephedra have been banned in the United States. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) ephedra is called ma huang. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
97. Ergogenic aids
Ergogenic aids are substances, foods, or training methods that enhance energy production, use or recovery and provide athletes with a competitive advantage. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
98. Fad Diets
Many fad diets defy logic, basic biochemistry, and even appetite appeal. They are popular because they promise quick results, are relatively easy to implement, and claim remarkable improvements in how their followers will look or feel. Unfortunately, the one thing most fad diets have in common is that they seldom promote sound weight loss. More important, they only work short-term. As many as 95% of people who lose weight gain it back within five years. It is not surprising that nearly 25% of Americans are confused when it comes to information about dieting. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
99. Fat Flush Diet
The fat flush diet is a combination weight-loss and detoxification (’detox’) or cleansing diet, formulated by the well-known nutritionist Ann Louise Gittleman. It is a low-carbohydrate, restricted-calorie diet, which is designed to boost decrease retention, and promote loss of fat. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
100. Fat Replacers
Fat replacers, also called fat substitutes, are substances that take the place of all or some of the fat in a food and yet give the food a taste, texture, and mouth feel similar to the original full-fat food. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
101. Fat Smash Diet
The fat smash diet is a 90-day, four-phase weight-loss program that is designed to ’smash’ bad habits and make permanent lifestyle changes in eating and physical activity. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
102. Fats
Fats are also known as lipids. A lipid is a substance that is poorly soluble or insoluble in The term ’dietary fat’ encompasses many different types of fat. Over 90% of dietary fats are called triacylglycerols or Other dietary fats include cholesterol. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
103. Fen-Phen
Fen-Phen was an anti-obesity regimen composed of fenfluramine or the closely related drug dexfenflur-amine (marketed under the brand name Redux) and phentermine (sold under several brand names including Adipex-P, Anoxine-AM, Fastin, Ionamin. Obe-phen, Obermine, Obestin-30 and Phentrol). The combination was found to cause damage to heart valves, and fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine were removed from the United States market in 1997. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
104. Fiber
Fiber is found only in foods of plant origin. It occurs in the skins, seeds, leaves and roots of fruits and vegetables, and in the germ and bran layers of grains. Pectins, lignans, cellulose, gums and mucilages are all different forms of fiber found in these foods. Because humans lack the digestive enzymes to break down fiber, it passes through the digestive tract largely unchanged. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
105. Fit for Life Diet
Fit for Life is a combination diet diet that emphasizes eating foods in the correct combination and avoiding the wrong combinations of foods rather than counting calories or controlling portion size. Several aspects of this diet have been disputed by dietitians and nutritionists. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
106. Flaxseed
Flaxseed is the seed of the plant It is a rich source of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), an essential nutrient in the human diet. Flaxseed has health and possibly medical benefits. Flaxseed oil is a vegetable oil derived from pressed flaxseed. Flaxseed. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
107. Fluoride
Fluoride is a naturally occurring element found in and food. It is important for the development of strong bones and teeth. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
108. Folate
Folate is a naturally occurring water-soluble vitamin that the body needs to remain healthy. Folic acid is a stable synthetic form of folate that is found in dietary supplements and is added to fortified foods such as flour and cereal. Humans cannot make folate or folic acid, so they must get it from foods in their diet or as a dietary supplement Folic acid and folate are both converted into an active form in that the body can use, although folic acid is more easily used (more bioavail-able) in the body. Folic acid is also called vitamin read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
109. Food Additives
The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) defines food additives as ’any substance, the intended use of which results or may reasonably be expected to result, directly or indirectly, in its becoming a component or otherwise affecting the characteristics of any food.’ In other words, an additive is any substance that is added to food. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
110. Food Allergies
Food allergies are the body’s response to proteins found in food. For more than 12 million Americans alone, food allergy is a significant medical condition. All food contains proteins that enter the body when the food is eaten, or in some cases if it is touched. Allergic reaction occurs when the body reacts to these proteins as if they were harmful, and for individuals with food allergy, the offending food is harmful. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
111. Food Contamination
Food contamination refers to foods that are spoiled or tainted because they either contain microorganisms, such as bacteria or parasites, or toxic substances that make them unfit for consumption. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
112. Food Labeling
Food labeling tells consumers about the, ingredients, and nutritional composition of packaged food for sale. Labels may also contain information about the conditions under which the food was produced. In the United States, food labeling is regulated by several federal agencies. Some labeling information is mandatory, while others is voluntary. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
113. Food Poisoning
Food poisoning comes from eating food or drinking that is the contaminated with a virus, bacterium, parasite, or chemical that causes illness. It is also called gastroenteritis. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
114. Food Safety
Food safety involves the safe handling of food from the time it is grown, packaged, distributed, and prepared to prevent foodborne illnesses. Food safety is the responsibility of those who handle and prepare food commercially for delivery to consumers and of consumers who prepare and eat food in their homes. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
115. Food Sensitivities
Food sensitivity, also known as food intolerance, can be defined as a reproducible, adverse reaction to a food, or food ingredient, at a dose tolerated by most people. It is technically described as non-allergenic food hypersensitivity as it does not involve the immune system, unlike in cases of food allergy where an immune response is involved. Typically the features of food sensitivity are less severe and take a longer time to manifest, compared with food allergy where symptoms can be potentially life-threatening and occur soon after ingestion. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
116. French Paradox
The French Paradox refers to the low rate of (CHD) in France despite the diet being rich in saturated fat. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
117. Frozen-Food Diet
Frozen-food diets rely on packaged frozen foods for weight loss and weight control that are based on standardized portions, as well as for convenience and saving time. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
118. Fructose Intolerance
Fructose intolerance is a condition where the body has difficult digesting and using fructose and fructose-containing foods. It is treated by complete elimination of fructose and sucrose from the diet. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
119. Fruitarian diet
A fruitarian diet is a strict form of a vegetarian diet that is generally limited to eating fresh fruits. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
120. Gallstones
Gallstones are solid material that forms in the gallbladder or bile ducts. They are made of cholesterol, bilirubin, and and range in size from a grain of sand to a golf ball. A single stone may be present, or they may exist in large numbers. Gallstones are also called choleliths. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
121. Gastroesophageal reflux disease
GERD, or gastroesophageal reflux disease, occurs when gastric juice from the stomach backs up into the bottom of the esophagus and causes irritation, inflammation or erosion of the cells lining the esophagus. GERD is sometimes called acid reflux disease. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
122. Giardiasis
Giardiasis is a communicable gastrointestinal disease characterized by acute diarrhea. It is caused by a parasite, also known as Giardiasis is the most common water-borne infection of the human intestine worldwide, affecting as many as 200 million people each year. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), there were 90 major community outbreaks of giardiasis in the United States between 1964 and 1984, and 34 major outbreaks since 1985. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
123. Ginkgo biloba
Ginkgo biloba is an herbal dietary supplement made from the leaves of the tree read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
124. Ginseng
Ginseng refers to two closely related herbs of the genus . Asian ginseng and American ginseng have traditionally been used for healing. Asian ginseng is also known as Korean red ginseng, Chinese ginseng, Japanese ginseng, ginseng radix, ninjin, sang, and ren shen. American ginseng is also known as Canadian ginseng, North American ginseng, Ontario ginseng, Wisconsin ginseng, red berry, sang, and ren shen. Siberian ginseng is a plant with different properties that belongs to a completely different genus. Ginseng in this entry refers only to Asian and American ginseng of the genus read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
125. Glucosamine
Glucosamine is a natural compound found in the human body, specifically an amino monosaccharide (a nitrogen-containing sugar). It is thought to possibly play a role in cartilage formation and repair and to perhaps have an anti-inflammatory affect within humans. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
126. Gluten-free diet
A gluten-free diet is a diet that is completely free of gluten, which is a generic term for storage proteins found in grains. In (also referred to as celiac sprue), persons develop an inflammatory immune system response to gluten that results in damage to the small intestine, which inhibits absorption of nutrients. Some persons also develop dermatitis her-petiformis, an itchy and blistering skin condition. Because of gluten intolerance, affected persons must completely avoid foods that contain gluten. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
127. Glycemic index diets
Glycemic index diets rank carbohydrates based on their ability to affect blood glucose (sugar) levels. These diets generally consider foods high in carbohydrates, such as bread, sugar, and pasta, as bad and low carbohydrate foods, such as meat, fish, and dairy products, as good. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
128. Gout diet
A gout diet is a nutritional routine that includes eating foods low in purines to help reduce the occur-ance and severity of gout attacks. Gout is a form of arthritis with symptoms of sudden and severe pain, redness, and tenderness in joints. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
129. Grapefruit diet
There are several diets or approaches to dieting that have been referred to as the “grapefruit diet.” The first two are that have been circulating via chain letters, photocopies, faxes, and e-mail since the 1930s. The third form might be better described as the regular use of grapefruit or grapefruit juice as part of a general approach to weight reduction. It received considerable attention following the 2004 publication of a study conducted at the Scripps Clinic in California. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
130. Greek and Middle Eastern diet
The “Mediterranean diet” gained much recognition and worldwide interest in the 1990s as a model for healthful eating habits. The diet is based on the traditional dietary patterns of Crete, a Greek island, and other parts of Greece and southern Italy. The diet has become a popular area of study due to observations made in 1960 of low incidences of chronic disease and high life-expectancy rates attributed to the populations who consumed a traditional Mediterranean diet. This healthful diet model goes far beyond the use of particular ingredients and recipes. It attains its full meaning in the context of climate, geography, customs, and the way of life of Mediterranean peoples. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
131. Green tea
Green tea is made of the lightly steamed and then dried leaf of the shrub . When processed in this way, the leaves retain many of the chemical properties that are thought to provide health benefits. Green tea extract is a concentrated form of green tea that is sold as a dietary supplement. It usually comes in capsules, but sometimes is packaged as a liquid. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
132. Half Title Page
No description given read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
133. Hamptons Diet
The Hamptons diet is a low-carbohydrate, low-calorie diet that could be described as a cross between the and the . The originator of the Hamptons diet, Dr. Fred Pescatore, is the former associate medical director of the Atkins Center. He has himself described the Hamptons diet as “low-carb with a Mediterranean twist.” The diet focuses on eating healthy monosaturated , especially , found in fish and vegetables. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
134. Hay Diet
The Hay diet is named for the New York physician who created a plan that prohibited the consumption of starches and proteins during the same meal. William Howard Hay began developing the food-combining diet in 1904 to treat himself for medical conditions including a dilated heart. He lost 50 (22.7 kilograms) pounds in approximately three months and recovered from the conditions. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
135. Healthy Heart Diet
A healthy heart diet is an eating plan designed to keep blood cholesterol low and prevent the risk of heart disease. This is usually achieved by eating foods that are low in saturated fat, total fat, cholesterol, and . Some diets help people lower their cholesterol levels. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
136. Heartburn
Heartburn is a burning sensation in the chest that can extend to the neck, throat, and face; it is worsened by bending or lying down. It is the primary symptom of gastroesophageal reflux, which is the movement of stomach acid into the esophagus. On rare occasions, it is due to gastritis (stomach lining inflammation). read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
137. Hemorrhoids
Hemorrhoids, also called piles, refers to a condition in which the veins around the anus or rectum are swollen and inflamed. Dietary adjustments are known to help relieve hemorrhoids. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
138. Herbalife
Herbalife is a U.S. company—formally named Herbalife International—which sells weight-loss, weight management, personal care, health, food/dietary, and nutritional supplement products. The company uses network marketing, also called multi-level marketing, which is a type of marketing plan that uses direct marketing along with franchisers and/or independent contractors to sell its products. According to the company’s Website, “Herbalife’s innovative products have been developed by scientists, doctors and nutritionists with your personal wellness goals in mind.” read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
139. High-Fat/Low-Carb Diets
All food is comprised of three essential components or fat, and carbohydrate. High-fat/low-carbohydrate or low-carb diets emphasize increased consumption of proteins and and a severe reduction of These diets are based on research that indicates high carbohydrate consumption increases levels of insulin in the blood. Insulin is a hormone that helps the body covert food into energy in the form of glucose or sugar. High insulin levels have been linked to medical conditions such as type II, cardiovascular disease, and obesity. These diseases are all part of a syndrome called Insulin Resistance Syndrome or Syndrome X. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
140. High-Fiber Diet
A high-fiber diet is a diet in which the individual consumes foods that meet or exceed the dietary reference intake (DRI) for dietary set by the United States Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academy of Sciences. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
141. High-Protein Diet
High diets are diets in which 20% or more of the total daily calories comes from proteins. A very high protein diet is one where 30% or more of the total daily calories comes from protein. By comparison, in the average American diet about 12–16% of calories come from protein. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
142. Hilton Head Metabolism Diet
The Hilton Head metabolism diet was created by Peter M. Miller, PhD, who believes that a dieter’s metabolism can be increased by eating five small meals a day and getting the correct amount and type exercise. This increase in metabolism will help allow the dieter to lose weight. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
143. Hispanic and Latino Diet
The United States Census Bureau defines as those who indicate their origin to be Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American (e.g., Dominican, Nicaraguan, Colombian) or other Hispanic origin. This designation is made independently of racial classification. According to the 2002 U.S. Census, 13.3% of the U.S. population (or over 37 million Americans) identified themselves as being of Hispanic origin. This number exceeds the number of non-Hispanic blacks, or African Americans, in the United States, making Hispanics the largest minority subpopulation within the nation. The three major subgroups that make up the Hispanic population are Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Cubans. By far the largest of these is the Mexican-American population, which represents at least twothirds of all Hispanics. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
144. Hollywood Diet
The Hollywood diet products are intended to produce extreme weight loss in a very short time. The Hollywood diet 30 Day Miracle Program is intended to allow dieters to lose weight over the course of a month by using various Hollywood diet products combined with healthy living strategies. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
145. Hoodia
Hoodia is a genus of desert plants containing 13 species. One species, , is marketed in the United States as a weight-loss supplement. In this entry, hoodia refers only to . read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
146. Hyperactivity and Sugar
Hyperactivity is behavior characterized by over-activity, impulsivity, distractibility, and decreased attention span. A popular but controversial belief is that children are more likely to be hyperactive if they eat sugar. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
147. Hyperlipidemia
Hyperlipidemia, also known as hyperlipoproteinemia or dyslipidemia, is an elevation of lipid levels () in the bloodstream. These lipids include cholesterol, cholesterol compounds, phospholipids and , all carried in the blood as part of large molecules called lipoproteins. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
148. Hypertension
Hypertension is the medical term for high blood pressure. Each time the heartbeats, it forces blood into the arteries. Blood pressure is the force created when blood moving through the body’s arteries pushes against the artery walls. Arteries are the blood vessels that carry blood from the heart throughout the body. Though many factors can cause hypertension, diet plays a major role in controlling high blood pressure. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
149. Hypertriglyceridemia
Hypertriglyceridemia is an elevation of triglyceride levels in the bloodstream. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
150. Infant Nutrition
No description given read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
151. Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) refers to a group of inflammatory disorders mostly of the large intestine including ulcerative colitis and that cause the intestines to become inflamed. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
152. Intuitive Eating
The central premise of the intuitive eating program is that people’s bodies possess innate biological wisdom that already knows what foods and eating habits are best for them, beyond all the different dietary recommendations that flood the market and create confusion among consumers. Intuitive eating steers away from scientific explanations and rigid dietary requirements and values the psychological component of eating as an important factor in nutrition. The task for practitioners of intuitive eating is to recover the innate wisdom of the body, and the program offers practices to facilitate this process. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
153. Intussusception
Intussusception is a medical emergency in which one portion of the intestine (bowel) slides or “telescopes” into another section of bowel, cutting off the blood supply and blocking the flow of materials through the digestive system. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
154. Iodine
Iodine (I) is a non-metallic element that the body needs in very small (trace) amounts in order to remain healthy. It can only be acquired through diet. Deficiencies of iodine are a serious health problem in some parts of the world. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
155. Iron
Iron (Fe) is a metal essential to almost all bacteria, plants, and animals. In humans, iron is a compnent of the red pigment hemoglobin that gives red blood cells their color and affects the transport of oxygen throughout the body, conversion of nutrients into energy, production of new deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA, genetic material), and regulation of cell growth and cell differentiation. Without iron, life on Earth would not exist. Humans must acquire all the iron they need from diet. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
156. Irradiated Food
Irradiated foods are foods that have been exposed to a radiant energy source to kill harmful bacteria, insects, or parasites, or to delay spoilage, sprouting, or ripening. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
157. Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is an idiopathic functional gastrointestinal disorder. More simply, the bowel appears normal, but does not function correctly, read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
158. Irritable Bowel Syndrome Diet
The diet is a set of recommendations designed to reduce the symptoms of both and diarrhea that are common with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). It is not a diet designed for weight loss. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
159. Jenny Craig Diet
Jenny Craig is a calorie-based three-stage lifestyle weight-loss program that incorporates pre-packaged food, transition to regular food, and long-term weight maintenance. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
160. Jillian Michaels Diet
The Jillian Michaels diet focuses on self, science, and sweat to help dieters achieve weight loss, toning, and increased health and fitness. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
161. Juice Fasts
Juice fasts, sometimes called juice therapy, are short-term dietary practices—typically one to three days in length—during which the dieter consumes only fruit, vegetable, or other plant juices in order to cleanse the body of heavy metals and other chemical toxins; as a practice related to Ayurvedic medicine; as the first step in the treatment of colitis, arthritis, depression, HIV infection, or other diseases; for weight reduction; as part of a vegetarian, fruitarian, or vegan lifestyle; or as a part of a general program of eliminating such other unhealthy habits as smoking, drinking large amounts of alcohol or caffei-nated beverages, and overeating. Some people drink large amounts of freshly extracted fruit or vegetable juices as part of their regular diet without necessarily fasting; this practice is called juicing. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
162. Ketogenic Diets
Ketogenic diets are a group of high-fat, moderate-protein, and very low-carbohydrate diets given to treat some children and adolescents with epilepsy, and some adults with epilepsy and other diseases. The name refers to the increased production of ketone bodies as a result of this special diet. Ketone bodies are three compounds that are formed during the of and are ordinarily excreted in the urine. An abnormally high level of ketone bodies is called keto-sis, and this condition is the goal of the ketogenic diet. It is thought that ketosis helps to control the frequency and severity of epileptic seizures, even though the reasons for this effect are not fully understood as of 2007. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
163. Kidney Diet
The kidney diet, also known as the renal diet, is a set of guidelines for people with kidney disease. The types of foods prescribed depend on the level of kidney failure the patient is experiencing, but generally the diet involves controlling the amount of , potassium, phosphorus, , and fluid that a person ingests. People with kidney disease should be in consultation with a renal dietitian. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
164. La Weight Loss Program
The LA Weight Loss program is a diet plan based around weight loss centers. The centers offer counseling, personalized weight loss planning, and exercise guidelines. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
165. Lacto-Vegetarianism
The term ’vegetarian’ is non-specific. It is used to describe a whole range of diets, practiced with differing degrees of restrictio9n. Vegetarians are sometimes referred to as ’semi-’ of ’demi-’ vegetarian, if they merely exclude meat. Then more widely accepted classifications are listed below. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
166. Lactose Intolerance Diet
Lactose intolerance is a condition caused by the inability to digest lactose, a sugar found in milk. The lactose intolerance diet is a diet designed to treat the symptoms that result from undigested lactose. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
167. Liquid Diets
Liquid diets is a term that encompasses a wide range of diets that serve a variety of functions. It can mean either partial or full meal replacement by either clear or non-clear fluids. Doctors often prescribe a liquid diet for before or after certain surgeries, or for patients who are medically obese. People also use them for fasting or weight loss. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
168. Low-Cholesterol Diet
A low cholesterol diet is a diet designed to reduce the amount of cholesterol circulating in the blood. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
169. Low-Fat Diet
Different medical organizations, governments, and diet plans define ’low fat’ slightly different ways. In this essay, a low fat diet is one where 30% or less of the total daily calories come from A very low fat diet is one where 15% or less of the total daily calories come from fat. By comparison, in the average American diet about 35–37% of calories come from fat. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
170. Low-Protein Diet
A low diet, a diet in which people are required to reduce their intake of protein, is used by persons with abnormal kidney or liver function to prevent worsening of their disease. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
171. Low-Sodium Diet
A low diet is a diet that is low in salt, usually allowing less than 1 teaspoon per day. Many diseases, including kidney disease, heart disease, and diabetes, require a patient to follow a low sodium diet. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
172. Macrobiotic Diet
The macrobiotic diet is part of a philosophy and lifestyle that incorporates concepts of balance and harmony from Asian philosophy and beliefs about diet from Traditional Chinese Medicine. It is intended to be a weight-loss diet, although people who switch to this diet often lose weight. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
173. Macronutrients
Nutrients are substances needed for growth, and for other body functions. Macronutrients are nutrients that provide calories or energy. The prefix makro is from the Greek and means big or large, used because macronutrients are required in large amounts. There are three broad classes of macro-nutrients: proteins, and fats. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
174. Magnesium
Magnesium (Mg) is an element belonging to the alkaline earth metal group. It participates in over 300 metabolic reactions, is crucial for life and health and is read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
175. Maker's Diet
The Maker’s diet is a diet based on biblical dietary laws. It provides guidelines to help dieters to eat as they were created to eat. It encompasses aspects of physical, mental, spiritual and emotional health. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
176. Manganese
Manganese (Mn) is a mineral necessary in very tiny (trace) amounts for human health. In large quantities, manganese is poisonous. Manganese is used in some enzyme reactions and for the proper development of bones and cartilage. Humans must meet their needs for manganese from their diet. Manganese is read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
177. Maple Syrup Urine Disease
Maple syrup urine disease (), which is also known as branched-chain ketoaciduria, branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase deficiency, or deficiency, is a rare but potentially fatal inherited metabolic disorder () passed down in an autosomal recessive pattern. The special diet associated with is a low-protein diet characterized by restriction of a specific amino acid known as leu-cine; the use of high-calorie liquid or gel formulas that are free of branched-chain amino acids (s); and frequent monitoring of the levels in the patient’s blood plasma. Strict adherence to this diet is necessary to prevent developmental delays, mental retardation, and recurrent metabolic crises leading to respiratory failure and death. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
178. Mayo Clinic Diet (Fad Diet)
The Mayo Clinic diet (fad diet) is a popular diet that was neither created by nor endorsed by the Mayo Clinic, an internationally respected medical research facility headquartered in Rochester, Minnesota. The fad diet promises a weight loss of 10 pounds (4.5kilo-grams) for the person who follows the plan for 12 days. The dieter wanting to lose more weight takes two days off from the regimen and then starts the diet again. A person supposedly could lose more than 50 pounds (22.7 kilograms) within several months, according to the diet plan. The diet is low in , high in fat, and restricts the consumption of fruits, breads, and dairy products. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
179. Mayo Clinic Plan (Endorsed by Clinic)
The plan is the weight-management program created by the Mayo Clinic, a respected medical facility headquartered in Rochester, Minnesota. Unlike the fad diet erroneously bearing the clinic’s name, the actual Mayo plan concentrates on longterm health rather than a quick weight loss. While the Mayo Clinic fad diet is a temporary program that promises the dieter will shed 10 pounds (4.5 kilograms) in about two weeks, people following the 12-week Mayo Clinic Healthy Weight plan generally lose 1 to 2 pounds (0.45 to 0.90 kilograms) per week. The diet based on the clinic’s Healthy Weight Pyramid allows unlimited consumption of fruits and vegetables. Exercise is also prescribed. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
180. Meckel's Diverticulum
A Meckel’s diverticulum is a small pouch about 2 inches long that develops near the junction of the small and large intestines. Meckel’s diverticulum occurs due to an abnormality in early fetal development. It is the most common birth defect that occurs in the digestive system. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
181. Medifast
The Medifast diet is a portion-controlled, low-fat, low-carbohydrate, low-calorie diet plan that utilizes meal replacement foods that are obtained from the Medifast company. These meal replacement foods are nutrient-dense and low-calorie. As a low-calorie diet, the Medifast diet is intended to produce rapid weight loss at the start of a weight-loss program for persons who are moderately to extremely obese. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
182. Mediterranean Diet
The Mediterranean diet is better described as a nutritional model or pattern of food consumption rather than a diet in the usual sense of the word. To begin with, there is more than one Mediterranean diet, if the phrase is understood to refer to the traditional foods and eating patterns found in the countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. Francesco Visioli, a researcher who has edited two books on the subject, prefers the term ’’Mediterranean diets’’ in the plural to reflect the fact that ’’the populations in the Mediterranean area have different cultures, religions, economic prosperity, and [levels of] education, and all these factors have some influence on dietary habits and health.’’ For example, Visioli notes that alcohol intake is very low in the Maghreb (coastal northwestern Africa) because most inhabitants of the region are Muslim, and consequently cereal grains figure more prominently in their diet than in most other Mediterranean countries. In addition, the differences among the various forms of the Mediterranean diet are important in understanding some of the research studies that have been done on it, as will be described more fully below. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
183. Men's Nutrition
While many diseases and health care issues affect both men and women, certain diseases and conditions exhibited in men may require distinct approaches regarding diagnosis and management. Some of the major issues associated with men’s health are related to , diabetes, heart disease, , impotence, and health. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
184. Menopause Diet
A menopause diet is a diet recommended for the special nutritional needs of women undergoing menopause and usually includes foods rich in and . read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
185. Metabolism
Carbohydrates made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms are classified as mono-, di-, and poly-saccharides, depending on the number of sugar units they contain. The monosaccharides—glucose, galactose, and fructose—obtained from the digestion of food are transported from the intestinal mucosa via the portal vein to the liver. They may be utilized directly for energy by all tissues; temporarily stored as glycogen in the liver or in muscle; or converted to fat, amino acids, and other biological compounds. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
186. Minerals
Minerals are inorganic elements that originate in the earth and cannot be made in the body. They play important roles in various bodily functions and are necessary to sustain life and maintain optimal health, and thus are essential nutrients. Most of the minerals in the human diet come directly from plants and , or indirectly from animal foods. However, the mineral content of water and plant foods varies geographically because of variations in the mineral content of soil from region to region. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
187. Molybdenum
Molybdenum is a trace element considered a micronutrient, meaning a nutrient needed in very small amounts. It is required by almost all living organisms and works as a cofactor for enzymes that carry out important chemical transformations in the global carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur cycles. Thus, molybdenum-dependent enzymes are not only required for the health of people, but also for the health of ecosystems. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
188. Native American Diet
When Christopher Columbus dropped anchor on the shores of San Salvador in the Caribbean Sea, he believed he reached India. Because he believed he was in India, Columbus named the inhabitants a term that was soon used to refer to all the native inhabitants of North America. Today, the term is more commonly used. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
189. Neanderthin
The neanderthin diet is a high-protein low-carbohydrate diet that is based on the foods eaten by early humans of the paleolithic era, from about one million years ago to 10,000-14,000 years ago when agriculture developed. Since this was the period of rapid evolution of the human species, modern humans are presumed to be genetically adapted to a paleolithic diet. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
190. Negative Calorie Diet
The Negative Calorie diet is based on the theory that some foods use more calories to digest than are contained in the foods and that this can be used to produce weight loss. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
191. Niacin
Niacin is a general term that refers to two forms of vitamin B, nicotinic acid and niacinamide. Humans need niacin to remain healthy, and although the liver can slowly make very small amounts of niacin, most niacin must come from foods or read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
192. Northern European Diet
The countries of northern Europe include the United Kingdom of Great Britain (England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland), the Republic of Ireland (now a sovereign country), and France. (Although southern France is generally considered to be part of southern Europe, it will be included in this discussion.) These countries are all part of the European Union. England and France have a very diverse population due to the large number of immigrants from former colonies and current dependent territories. Catholicism and Protestantism are the dominant religions. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
193. Nutrigenomics
Nutrigenomics can be defined as the study of the relationships between dietary factors and individual genes. Nutrigenomics is sometimes referred to as: read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
194. Nutrisystem
NutriSystem is a commercial weight loss program based in the Philadelphia area that delivers heat-and-eat foods directly to the customer’s home in 28-day packages. Its products have been described as ’’fast food for weight loss.’’ Customers select one of six specialized subprograms, each of which offers a prepackaged assortment of food items called ’’Favorites Package’’ or a completely customized selection. As of 2007 NutriSystem has about 800,000 customers in the United States and Canada. In addition to its meal delivery programs, the company offers including a multivitamin called Nutrihance. It has also recently formed a business partnership with a network of franchised fitness centers called Slim and Tone. In early 2007, NutriSystem combined its direct online marketing of diet foods with its network division of franchised consultants. The company’s market value was estimated at $2 billion as of early 2007. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
195. Nutrition and Mental Health
Mental health problems are believed to be the result of a combination of factors that appear to play a role in predisposing individuals to developing a mental health difficulty. These include genetics, age and environmental factors. More recently, however, there is a growing wealth of evidence, which highlights the ever-increasing role that food and nutrition plays in our emotional status. The evidence suggests that may food play an important contributing role in the prevention, progression and management of mental health problems including, Depression, Anxiety, Schizophrenia, Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD), and Alzheimers Disease. Research is ongoing in this area and the role of nutrition in mental health has yet to be fully understood and embraced. Much of the proposed benefits require further research before we can equivocally relate specific mental health problems to our nutritional status. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
196. Nutrition Literacy
Nutrition literacy refers to the set of abilities needed to understand the importance of good nutrition in maintaining health. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
197. Obesity
Obesity is an abnormal accumulation of body fat, usually 20% or more over an individual’s ideal body weight. Obesity is associated with increased risk of illness, disability, and death. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
198. Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Essential to human health, omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated that are not made by the body and must be obtained from a person’s food. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
199. Optifast
Optifast is an all liquid diet. It is intended for significant weight loss in a short period of time, is intended only for the extremely obese, and must be completed under the supervision of a trained physician. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
200. Optimum Health Plan
The Optimum Health Plan is a program created by Andrew Weil, M.D. that uses ideas from integrative medicine to improve a dieter’s physical and emotional health. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
201. Oral Health and Nutrition
Oral tissues, such as the gingiva (gums), teeth, and muscles of mastication (chewing muscles), are living tissues, and they have the same nutritional requirements as any other living tissue in the body. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
202. Organic Food
Organic foods are not specific foods, but are any foods that are grown and handled after harvesting in a particular way. In the United States, organic foods are crops that are raised without using synthetic pesticides, synthetic fertilizers, or sewage sludge fertilizer, and they have not been altered by genetic engineering. Organic animal products come from animals that have been fed 100% organic feed and raised without the use of growth hormones or antibiotics in an environment where they have access to the outdoors. Standards for organic foods vary from country to country. The requirements in Canada and Western Europe are similar to those in the United States. Many developing countries have no standards for certifying food as “organic.” read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
203. Orlistat
Orlistat, also known as tetrahydrolipstatin (THL), is a drug used to treat in conjunction with a low-calorie, The anti-obesity drug is used as a medical aid to lose weight (weight loss) and to maintain that weight afterwards (weight maintenance). It is classified within the drug class called lipase inhibitors, where lipase is produced primarily in the pancreas. Orlistat is a crystalline power that is whitish in color. Chemically, it is the saturated derivative of lipstatin, which is isolated from The empirical chemical formula for orlistat is CHNO. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
204. Osteoporosis
Osteoporosis is a chronic disorder in which the mass of bones decreases and their internal structure degenerates to the point where bones become fragile and break easily. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
205. Osteoporosis Diet
, most commonly referred to as “thinning of the bones”, is a disease in which bone mineral density is reduced. This can cause the bones become brittle and fragile and easily fracture. Although there is no cure for osteoporosis, it can be prevented. Healthy diets, along with weight bearing exercise, are key factors in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. The focus of the osteoporosis diet is on optimising bone health at every stage in life and is based on a normal balanced diet with an emphasis on rich foods and . read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
206. Ovolactovegetarianism
Ovolactovegetarians, who are also known as lacto-ovovegetarians, are vegetarians who do not eat fish, poultry, or red meat but accept eggs, milk, and honey as part of their diet on the grounds that these foods can be obtained without killing the animals who produce them. The part of the name comes from the Latin word for egg, while is derived from the Latin word for milk. In the West, ovolactovegetarians are the largest subgroup of vegetarians. As a result, most restaurants, institutional food services, cookbooks, and prepared foods that identify themselves as ’vegetarian’ without further qualification are ovo-lactovegetarian. Similarly, travelers who order special ’vegetarian’ meals from an airline before departure will be given ovolactovegetarian food unless they are more specific. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
207. Ovovegetarianism
Ovovegetarianism is a subcategory of . Ovovegetarians, who are sometimes called eggetarians, are people who consume a plant-based diet with the addition of eggs. The part of the name comes from the Latin word for egg. Ovovegetarians do not eat red meat, poultry, fish, or use cow’s milk or milk-based products (cheese, yogurt, ice cream). read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
208. Pacific Islander American Diet
The Pacific Islands contain 789 habitable islands and are divided into the three geographic areas: Polynesia, Melanesia, and Micronesia. According to the 2000 U.S. Census, there are over a million Pacific Islanders in the United States, most of whom live in California, Hawaii, Washington, Utah, and Texas. Pacific Islander ethnicities in the United States include Carolinian, Fijian, Guamanian, Hawaiian, Kosraean, Melanesian, Micronesian, Northern Mariana Islander, Palauan, Papua New Guinean, Ponapean, Polynesian, Samoan, Solomon Islander, Tahitian, Tarawa Islander, Tongan, Trukese (Chuukese), and Yapese. Prior to 1980, Pacific Islander Americans (except Hawaiians) were classified with Asian Americans under the classification of ’Asian and Pacific Islander American.’ Today, the U.S. Census Bureau includes Pacific Islander Americans under the classification of ’Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander.’ Pacific Islanders are a racially and culturally diverse population group, and they follow a wide variety of religions and have an array of languages. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
209. Pacific Islander Diet
The Pacific Ocean—the world’s largest ocean—extends about 20,000 kilometers from Singapore to Panama. There are 789 habitable islands within the ’Pacific Islands,’ a geographic area in the western Pacific comprising Polynesia, Melanesia, and Micronesia. Polynesia includes 287 islands and is triangular, with Hawaii, New Zealand, and Easter Island at the apexes. Other major Polynesian islands include American (Eastern) Samoa, Western Samoa, Tonga, Tahiti, and the Society Islands. The Hawaiian Islands have been studied more than most other Pacific islands primarily because Hawaii is part of the United States of America. The Melanesian Islands (Melanesia) include the nations of Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands and New Caledonia (a French dependent). The 2,000 small islands of Micronesia include Guam (American), Kiribati, Nauru, the Marshall Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Gilbert Islands, Palau, and the Federated States of Micronesia. Migration is very fluid between Polynesia, Melanesia, and Micronesia, and many Pacific Islanders also migrate to the United States and other countries. Pacific Islanders are a racially and culturally diverse population, and the people of the islands follow a wide variety of religions. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
210. Pantothenic Acid
Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B, belongs to the group of B-complex water-soluble . Every living organism needs pantothenic acid to survive. Humans do not make this vitamin and must obtain it from the food they eat. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
211. Peanut Butter Diet
The peanut butter diet is a diet plan developed by Holly McCord, nutrition editor of Prevention magazine, a popular health and nutrition magazine. The diet allows consumers to enjoy peanut butter every day while still achieving their weight loss goals. The diet is appealing because it offers a wide variety of nutrients, while allowing the dieter to enjoy peanut butter, a satisfying “comfort” food. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
212. Perricone Diet
The Perricone diet is an anti-inflammatory and that emphasizes salmon and nutritional supplements. It is designed to promote weight loss, maintain a healthy weight, and slow or reverse the visible aging process. The cornerstone food in the diet is fish, primarily salmon. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
213. Personality Type Diet
The personality type diet is a diet developed by Dr. Robert Kushner that helps dieters identify what kind of eating, exercising, and coping habits they have to help dieters achieve weight loss and better health through personalized incremental change. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
214. Phytonutrients
Phytonutrients are a class of nutrients that are thought to have health-protecting properties. The prefix is from the Greek and means plant, and it is used because phytonutrients are obtained only from plants. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
215. Pregnancy Diet
A healthy diet during pregnancy is essential to provide all the nutrients needed by a mother and her growing baby. It is a common misconception that pregnant women need to “eat for two”. In fact, most of the additional nutrients needed during pregnancy can be obtained by selecting appropriate foods and eating a high quality nutrient-dense diet. However there are some specific recommendations, which include taking folic acid supplements in early pregnancy to reduce the risk of neural tube defects, such as spina bifida. It is also important for pregnant women to be adopt good food hygiene practices to minimize the risk of from harmful bacteria and to avoid substances in foods and drinks that might be potentially harmful to them or their growing baby. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
216. Pritikin Diet
The Pritikin diet is a heart-healthy high-carbohydrate, low-fat, moderate-exercise lifestyle diet developed in the 1960s. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
217. Prostate
The prostate is a male gland about the size of a walnut located just behind the bladder and is part of the reproductive system. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
218. Protein
No description given read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
219. Raw Foods Diet
The raw food diet is a lifestyle diet where at least 75% of all food consumed eaten raw and never commercially processed or cooked. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
220. Religion and Dietary Practices
Since the beginning of time, dietary practices have been incorporated into the religious practices of people around the world. Some religious sects abstain, or are forbidden, from consuming certain foods and drinks; others restrict foods and drinks during their holy days; while still others associate dietary and food preparation practices with rituals of the faith. The early biblical writings, especially those found in Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy of the Old Testament (and in the Torah) outlined the dietary practices for read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
221. Renal Nutrition
Renal nutrition is concerned with the special dietary needs of kidney patients. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
222. Riboflavin
Riboflavin is a water-soluble vitamin that the body needs to remain healthy. Humans cannot make riboflavin, so they must get it from foods in their diet. Riboflavin is also called vitamin B. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
223. Rice-Based Diets
Rice is the most important cereal crop for human consumption. It is the staple food for over 3 billion people (most of them economically challenged) constituting over half of the world's population. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
224. Richard Simmons Diet
The Richard Simmons diet focuses on three areas: diet, exercise, and motivation. It emphasizes a balanced diet, moderate exercise, and a positive outlook. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
225. Rosedale Diet
The Rosedale diet is a diet that was created by Dr. Ron Rosedale. It limits and proteins and is supposed to be able to help the body stabilize levels of leptin, a hormone believed to trigger the brain to send hunger signals to the body. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
226. Sacred Heart Diet
The Sacred Heart diet is a 7 day diet plan that allows a dieter to eat a specific set of foods each day and as much of a special soup as desired. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
227. Scandinavian Diet
Scandinavia is a term for the region that includes Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. The Scandinavian diet often includes many kinds of fish and seafood, and many kinds of salted and preserved foods. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
228. Scarsdale Diet
The Scarsdale diet is a rapid weight loss regimen classified as a very low-calorie diet, or VLCD. It is also one of the oldest low-carbohydrate diets still followed by some dieters. Although the first edition of was published in 1978, over a quarter-century ago, the book is still in print as of early 2007. It is reported to be particularly popular in France in the early 2000s. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
229. Selenium
Selenium is a trace element considered a micro-nutrient, meaning a nutrient needed in very small amounts, that is required as an essential cofactor for the antioxidant enzymes of the body to counteract the damaging effects of reactive oxygen in tissues. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
230. Senior Nutrition
Senior nutrition addresses the special dietary requirements of the elderly. Although wise food choices and a balanced diet are essential for older adults to maintain a healthy lifestyle and to promote longevity, there are various obstacles that prevent or limit seniors from practicing and benefiting from good eating habits. Such obstacles include loneliness, depression, economic concerns, lack of cooking skills or desire to cook, inadequate nutritional knowledge, reduced capacity to absorb and utilize nutrients, oral/dental problems and difficulty in chewing, loss of appetite, and eating/nutrient complications due to the use of various medications. In addition, older adults need certain and nutrients to aid in the maintenance of their health. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
231. Shangri-la Diet
The Shangri-la diet is not a diet in the usual sense of a set of meal plans or detailed instructions about calorie intake and nutrition. The book that was published in 2006, is perhaps better described as a discussion of a psychological theory about human appetite than a diet book strictly speaking. The core of the author's theory is that people gain weight because they have been conditioned to have a strong association between food and flavor, which keeps the appetite demanding more of a specific source of calories in order to continue tasting the flavor. If a person can break the association between flavor and food intake, they can lose weight because they won't feel hungry as often or as intensely. The book suggests several ways in which this association can be broken, thus leading to lifelong reduction in calorie intake with relatively little physical or emotional distress. As one newspaper reporter describes the diet, “. . . it seems that you may eat whatever you wish under the [author's] plan, but you just won';t want to.” The diet has generated considerable controversy since its publication, not only in regard to its theory of appetite and weight control, but also about the role of expert review and clinical trials in evaluating new diets. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
232. Six Day Body Makeover
The Six Day Body Makeover is a rapid weight loss program designed by Michael Thurmond. The diet is intended to let dieters “drop a dress or pant size” in only six days by following a strict plan of dieting and exercise designed to boost read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
233. Six week body makeover
The Six Week Body Makeover is designed for rapid weight loss over a relatively short period of time. It promises that dieters can lose thirty pounds and completely reshape their body in only six weeks by following a plan of dieting and exercise designed to boost read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
234. Slim-Fast
Slim-Fastis the trademarked brand name of both a line of diet products and a weight-management program known as the Slim-Fast Optima Diet. Slim-Fast Foods, the manufacturer of the diet products, was acquired by Unilever N.V., a company headquartered in the United Kingdom, in 2000. Slim-Fast diet shakes are perhaps the best-known products in the line, which also includes snack bars, meal bars, smoothies, cookies, and powders for reconstituting by mixing with skimmed milk. The Slim-Fast diet plan is sometimes categorized together with other plans based on liquid diet products as a liquid meal replacement or LMR diet. LMR diet products themselves are a major business in the United States, reported in 2006 to account for over $1 billion in consumer purchases each year. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
235. Slim4Life
Slim4Life is a center-based approach to weight loss that helps dieters lose weight through regular sessions with personal diet counselors. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
236. Sodium
Sodium is a mineral that exists in the body as the ion Na+. Sodium is acquired through diet, mainly in the form of salt (sodium chloride, NaCl). Regulating the amount of Na+ in the body is absolutely critical to life and health. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
237. Sonoma diet
The Sonoma diet is a plan for eating healthy, flavorful foods that emphasizes the enjoyment of eating, rather than restrictions. It draws from the culinary cultures of the Sonoma region of California and the Mediterranean coast of Europe. It is intended both to help people lose weight and to maintain a healthy lifestyle. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
238. South American diet
South America is the fourth largest continent on the planet, making up 12% of the earth’s surface. It contains twelve independent nations: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela. In addition, it contains three territories: The Falkland Islands (Great Britain), French Guiana (France), and the Galapagos Islands (Ecuador). The continent has a very diverse population. There are small pockets of native Indian groups and significant numbers of descendents of Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, German, West African, and East Indians settlers. There also are considerable numbers of Chinese and Japanese. Approximately 90 to 95% of South Americans are Roman Catholic. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
239. South Beach diet
The South Beach diet is a popular short-term fast-weight-loss diet combined with a long-term calorie-controlled diet. The South Beach diet sets itself apart form several other popular diets by differentiating between ’’good carbohydrates’’ and ’’bad carbohydrates’’ based on their glycemic index and ’’good fats’’ and ’’bad fats’’ based on their degree of saturation. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
240. Soy
Soy is a general term for products made from soybeans. Soy products include tofu, tempeh, soy oil, natto, miso, soymilk, and edamame. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
241. Spirulina
Spirulina is a genus of blue-green algae used as a nutritional supplement. Blue-green algae, microscopic fresh-water organisms, are also known as cyanobacte-ria. Their color is derived from the green pigment of chlorophyll, and the blue from a protein called phy-cocyanin. The species most commonly recommended for use as a nutritional supplement are These occur naturally in warm, alkaline, salty, brackish lakes, but are also commonly grown by aquaculture and harvested for commercial use. Spirulina contains many nutrients, including B vitamins, beta-carotene, gamma-linolenic acid, iron, calcium, magnesium, manganese, potassium, selenium, zinc, bioflavonoids, and protein. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
242. Sports Nutrition
Sports nutrition is a broad interdisciplinary field that involves dietitians, biochemists, exercise physiologists, cell and molecular biologists, and occasionally psychotherapists. It has both a basic science aspect that includes such concerns as understanding the body's use of nutrients during athletic competition and the need for nutritional supplements among athletes; and an application aspect, which is concerned with the use of proper nutrition and to enhance an athlete's performance. The psychological or psychiatric dimension of sports nutrition is concerned with eating and other mental disorders related to nutrition among athletes. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
243. St. John's Wort
St. John's wort (also sometimes called Saint John's wort) is the common name for any member of a group of annual or long-living perennial herbs and shrubs with attractive five-petaled golden-yellow flowers. It is used by some people as a way to decrease the symptoms read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
244. Subway Diet
The Subway diet is the weight-loss plan created by Jared Fogle, an obese college student who weighed 425 pounds (192.7 kilograms). The 22-year-old Fogle lost 245 pounds (111.1 kilograms) in 11 months by following a daily diet that consisted primarily of two low-fat sandwiches purchased at the Subway fast-food chain. After losing 100 pounds (45.4 kilograms), the 6-foot-2 (187.9-centimter) Fogle added walking to his daily routine. His dramatic weight loss led to Fogle's appearances in Subway commercials and his role as a motivational speaker and an advocate in the fight against read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
245. Suzanne Somers Weight Loss Plan
The Suzanne Somers Weight Loss Plan is a guide to losing weight that does not limit caloric intake, but instead focuses on the correct foods in the correct combinations. It also focuses on reducing sugar and carbohydrate intake. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
246. Thiamin
Thiamin, also spelled thiamine and previously known as vitamin B, is a micronutrient essential for the of that converts sugar into energy for the body and for normal nerve and heart function. Thiamine deficiency causes a condition known as beriberi or beri-beri. The initial symptoms are very vague. The first indication of thiamine deficiency may be simple fatigue. As the condition becomes more advanced, there is a wide range of symptoms, affecting many organ systems. These include, but are not limited to chest pains, memory loss, muscle cramps and weakness. In more advanced cases, muscle atrophy and heart failure may be present. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
247. Title page
No description given read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
248. TLC Diet
Although there are several diets that will result in lowered LDL cholesterol, the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) set forth guidelines for medical professionals to follow when instructing patients on a medical nutrition option for lowering cholesterol. Termed the TLC diet or the Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes Diet it emphasizes heart healthy lifestyle choices. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
249. Trans Fatty Acids
fatty acids are unsaturated fatty acids with at least one double bond in the configuration. Unsaturated fatty acids are derived metabolically from saturated fatty acids by the abstraction of pairs of hydrogen atoms from adjacent methylene groups. The removal of a pair of hydrogen atoms gives rise to a double bond. The remaining hydrogen atoms can either be on the same side of the fatty acid molecule, in which case the double bond has the geometrical configuration, or on opposite sides giving the configuration. fatty acids occur naturally in a small amounts in a few foods, however, the majority are formed during the partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils. This process converts vegetable oils into semi-solid for use in margarines, commercial cooking, and manufacturing processes. There is strong evidence that the consumption of fatty acids from industrial sources increases the risk of (CHD). read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
250. Traveler's Diarrhea
Traveler’s diarrhea is an increase in loose, watery stools that often occurs when travelers from industrialized countries travel to developing or underdeveloped countries. Traveler’s diarrhea has many nicknames such as Montezuma’s revenge, Tut’s tummy, or tourista. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
251. Triglycerides
Triglycerides are a form of fat, consisting of three molecules (’’tri’’) of a fatty acid combined with one molecule of the alcohol glycerol. Triglycerides serve as the backbone of many types of lipids Triglycerides are produced by the liver as well as are ingested as part of the diet. Fats in foods are digested and changed to triglycerides. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
252. Trim Kids
also known as Committed to Kids (CTK), is a twelve-week behavioral weight management program for adolescents. The program integrates behavior modification, nutrition education, and exercise to promote lifestyle changes that carry into adulthood. Parental involvement is crucial as parents must provide limitations and support to help their child achieve weekly goals. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
253. Ulcers
An ulcer is any area of skin or mucous membrane that erodes, causing the tissue to degenerate. In common use, ulcers refer to disorders such as these that occur in the upper digestive tract. They may be called gastric ulcers, peptic ulcers, or simply ulcers. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
254. USDA Food Guide Pyramid (MyPyramid)
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) food pyramid, called MyPyramid to distinguish it from earlier versions, contains recommendations on diet and exercise based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
255. Veganism
Veganism (pronounced VEE-ganism), which is sometimes called strict or pure vegetarianism, is a lifestyle rather than a diet in the strict sense. The term itself was coined in 1944 by Donald Watson, a British vegan frustrated by the fact that most vegetarians saw nothing amiss with consuming eggs or dairy products. He derived vegan from combining the first three and the last two letters of the word vegetarian, maintaining that veganism represents “the beginning and the end of vegetarian.” The Vegan Society, which Watson and Elsie Shrigley co-founded in England during World War II, defines veganism as of 2007 as “a philosophy and way of living which seeks to exclude— as far as is possible and practical—all forms of exploitation of, and cruelty to, animals for food, clothing, or any other purpose.” November 1, the anniversary of the foundation of the Vegan Society, is observed annually as World Vegan Day. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
256. Vegetarianism
Vegetarianism refers to the practice of excluding meat, poultry, and fish from the diet. The word was coined in 1847, when the Vegetarian Society of the United Kingdom—the oldest organized vegetarian group in the world—was founded in Ramsgate, Kent. The Society, which has included George Bernard Shaw and Mahatma Gandhi among its members, chose the word for its name because it is derived from read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
257. Vitamin A
Vitamin A is a fat-soluble organic compound that the body needs to remain healthy. Humans cannot make vitamin A, so they must get it from foods in their diet. Vitamin A is sometimes called retinol. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
258. Vitamin B
Vitamin B is a water-soluble organic compound that the body needs to remain healthy. Humans cannot make vitamin B, so they must get it from foods in their diet. Vitamin B is sometimes called pyridoxine. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
259. Vitamin B
Vitamin B is a water-soluble organic compound that the body needs to remain healthy. The only organisms that can make vitamin B are bacteria, fungi, yeast, molds, and algae. Humans must get it from foods in their diet. Vitamin B is sometimes called cobalamin. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
260. Vitamin C
Vitamin C, also called ascorbic acid or antiscorbutic vitamin, is a water-soluble organic compound needed to prevent scurvy. Scurvy is marked by beeding gums and bone malformation in children. Humans cannot make or store vitamin C, so they must get a steady supply of it from foods in their diet. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
261. Vitamin D
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble steroid compound that the body needs to remain healthy. In some ways, vitamin D is not a true vitamin because the skin can make vitamin D when exposed to sunlight. However, if the body does not make enough vitamin D, additional amounts must be acquired through diet. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
262. Vitamin E
Vitamin E is a fat-soluble organic compound that the body needs to remain healthy. Humans cannot make vitamin E, so they must get it from foods in their diet. Vitamin E comes in eight forms. The most biologically active form in humans is alpha-toco-pherol. Most vitamin E in is synthetically manufactured alpha-tocopherol. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
263. Vitamin K
Vitamin K is a fat-soluble organic compound that the body needs to remain healthy. Although bacteria in the human intestine make some vitamin K, it is not nearly enough to meet the body's needs, so people must get most of their vitamin K from foods in their diet. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
264. Vitamins
Vitamins are organic compounds found in plants and animals that are necessary in small quantities for life and health. Thirteen different vitamins have been identified as necessary for humans. The body can make small quantities of two of these vitamins, vitamins D and K. All other vitamins must be obtained either from food or from read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
265. Volumetrics
Volumetrics is a weight-management plan that encourages dieters to control calories while eating enough food to feel satisfied. People who eat according to the Volumetrics plan focus on eating water- and fiber-rich foods to achieve satiety, the feeling of fullness after a meal. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
266. Warrior Diet
The Warrior diet is perhaps better described as a total exercise, nutrition, and fitness program; a diet regimen is only one part of the program. The diet is controversial on account of its proposal of a daily undereating/overeating cycle. The author of the diet claims that this daily undereating/overeating pattern is a natural biological tendency that modern humans ignore to the detriment of their long-term health. The diet's slogan is “It's when you eat that makes what you eat matter.” read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
267. Water
Water is hydrogen oxide and it is composed of two molecules of hydrogen and one molecule of oxygen. It has a molecular weight of 18.016 and is the most universal solvent known. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
268. Weight Cycling
Weight cycling is losing weight by dieting, regaining that weight and possibly more within a few months to a year, dieting and losing weight again, then putting the weight back on. Weight cycling is also called yo-yo dieting. It is the opposite of weight maintenance. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
269. Weight Loss 4 Idiots
Weight Loss 4 Idiots is also known as Fat Loss 4 Idiots. It is an 11 day diet based around the idea that changing the type of calories eaten each day will trick the into burning fat. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
270. Weight Watchers
Weight Watchers is the largest commercial weight-loss program in the world. The diet is based on calorie and portion control while eating regular food, exercise, and behavior modification. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
271. Women's Nutrition
Women have special nutritional needs due to hormonal changes that occur with menstruation, pregnancy, lactation, and menopause, all of which alter the recommended daily intake of nutrients. Of the many diseases that affect women, five have a scientific-based connection to nutrition: iron-deficiency anemia, osteoporosis, heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and some types of cancer. In addition, many women look to nutrition for the management of premenstrual and menopausal symptoms. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
272. Yersinia
Yersinia is a bacterium that can contaminate food and is responsible for a foodborne disease called yersiniosis. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
273. Zinc
Zinc is a trace element considered a micronutrient, meaning a nutrient needed in very small amounts. It is found in almost every living cell. The significance of zinc in human nutrition and public health was recognized relatively recently (1961) and it is now considered to have a wide range of essential biological roles in maintaining life and health. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets
274. Zone Diet
The Zone diet is a high , low carbohydrate diet. It is based on the concept that if people eat an ideal balance of , proteins, and fats at every meal and snack, they will achieve hormonal balance. This will control insulin levels and result in weight loss and health benefits. read more | Encyclopedia Of Diets

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