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Frozen-Food Diet

Definition

Frozen-food diets rely on packaged frozen foods for weight loss and weight control that are based on standardized portions, as well as for convenience and saving time.

Origins

A frozen-food diet was first introduced in Good Housekeeping magazine in September of 1998. In October of 2005 Good Housekeeping debuted a new frozen-food diet that consisted entirely of microwave-able meals. The new plan, based on research performed at the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition at the University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana, promised slightly increased weight loss and even less preparation time than the original diet.

Other frozen-food diets have also been developed. Nutrition expert Joy Bauer prepared a nine-day meal plan for the American Frozen Food Institute (AFFI) that consists entirely of frozen foods. Commercial frozen-food diets that are home-delivered weekly are also available. One such diet was devised by Dr. Caroline J. Cederquist, a board-certified physician in bariatrics, the medical specialty of weight management.

The original Good Housekeeping diet

The original Good Housekeeping frozen-food diet consists of seven days of menus. However any meal can be switched for the same meal on a different day. It is a 1,400-calorie per day diet and the plan calls for 45 minutes of exercise four–five days per week. Brand-name products may be substituted with similar foods having the same number of calories. Spices, garlic, lemon, soy sauce, and vinegar are permitted.

BREAKFASTS The day 1 breakfast consists of:.

  • one-half cup of Post 100% Bran or Kellogg’s Bran Buds or three-quarters cup Kellogg’s All Bran Original or Complete Bran Flakes
  • one cup of fat-free milk
  • 100 calories of fruit

The day 2 breakfast is:.

  • three frozen low-fat Aunt Jemima pancakes (150 calories) or two frozen low-fat Eggo Homestyle waffles (180 calories), with one-third cup of frozen unsweetened berries
  • one cup of fat-free milk

The day 3 breakfast is:.

  • one frozen single-serving Weight Watchers Smart Ones English muffin sandwich with ham and cheese (210 calories) or one frozen Swift Premium Morning Maker ham, egg, and cheese sandwich (250 calories)
  • one 50-calorie fruit or 4 oz (118 ml) of calcium-fortified orange juice

The day 4 breakfast consists of:.

  • one-half of a 3-oz (85-g) frozen Lender’s Big’n Crusty bagel (230 calories) with 1 oz (28 g) of light Jarlsberg or reduced-fat cheddar cheese, broiled, or one Thomas’s English muffin (110 calories)
  • one cup of calcium-fortified orange juice

The day 5 breakfast is the same as day 2 except that 6 oz (177 ml) of calcium-fortified orange juice may be substituted for the milk. The day 6 breakfast is the same as day 1. The day 7 breakfast is:.

  • one-half of a frozen Lender’s Big’n Crusty toasted bagel with one teaspoon of light butter or margarine or one Thomas’s English muffin (110 calories)
  • one cup of fat-free Dannon yogurt
  • one 50-calorie fruit

LUNCHES The day 1 lunch is:.

  • one frozen Celentano Great Choice Low Fat Stuffed Shells, Manicotti, or Lasagna (250 calories) or one Healthy Choice Manicotti with Three Cheeses frozen entree (260 calories)
  • two cups of loosely-packed ready-to-eat salad greens with two tablespoons of fat-free Italian dressing or balsamic, rice, or raspberry vinegar
  • two breadsticks
  • one cup of fat-free milk

The day 2 lunch consists of:.

  • one frozen Old El Paso Bean & Cheese Burrito with two tablespoons of salsa or one Weight Watchers Smart Ones Santa Fe Style Rice & Beans frozen entree (290 calories)

KEY TERMS

Bariatrics—A medical specialty that deals with weight management and the treatment of obesity.

Complex carbohydrates—Starches; polysaccharides that are made up of hundreds or thousands of monosaccharides or single sugar units; found in foods such as rice and pasta.

Couscous—A North African food consisting of steamed semolina—milled durum wheat—that is also used to make pasta.

Diuretic—A substance that increases the excretion of urine.

Lactose—Milk sugar; a disaccharide in milk that consists of one glucose molecule and one galactose molecule.

Monosodium glutamate—MSG; sodium glutamate; a salt derived from glutamic acid that is used to enhance the flavor of foods.

Pita—Pitta; pita bread; a round, double-layered or pocket flatbread made from wheat and yeast.

Simple carbohydrates—Simple sugars; monosaccharides, such as fructose found in fruit, and dis-accharides made up of two sugar units, such as lactose and sucrose or table sugar.

  • one 50-calorie fruit
  • one cup of fat-free milk.

The day 3 lunch is:

  • a chicken sandwich made with three one-quarter-inch-thick slices of leftover chicken breast from the day 1 dinner or 10 deli-thin slices of chicken breast, lettuce, sliced tomato, and one tablespoon of light mayonnaise or honey mustard, on two slices of whole-wheat bread
  • one 50-calorie fruit
  • one cup of fat-free milk

The day 4 lunch consists of:.

  • one frozen Lean Pockets Chicken Parmesan, Turkey, or Ham with Cheddar stuffed sandwich (280 calories) or one Ken & Robert’s Truly Amazing Veggie Pocket, Oriental or Broccoli & Cheddar (250 calories)
  • two cups of salad as for day 1
  • one 50-calorie fruit
  • one cup of fat-free milk

The day 5 lunch is:.

  • a tuna and bean salad made from three cups of ready-to-eat, loosely packed salad greens, 1 oz (28 g) of

crumbled reduced-fat feta cheese, one-third cup of canned drained red kidney beans, 2 oz (56 g) of water-packed canned tuna, drained and flaked, and 2 tablespoons of fat-free Italian dressing or flavored vinegar.

  • three breadsticks
  • a 100-calorie fruit

The day 6 lunch is:.

  • one frozen Stouffer’s Lean Cuisine Swedish Meatballs with Pasta or Three Bean Chili with Rice (250-280 calories) or one frozen Lean Pockets stuffed sandwich (250 calories) or one Healthy Choice Chicken Enchilada Suiza frozen entree (270 calories)
  • one small sliced tomato with two teaspoons of flavored vinegar
  • one cup of fat-free milk

The day 7 lunch consists of:.

  • one whole-wheat mini pita stuffed with one frozen Tyson or Banquet fat-free chicken-breast pattie (80-100 calories), diced tomatoes, 1 oz (28 g) of crumbled reduced-fat feta cheese, and a splash of red-wine vinegar
  • a 100-calorie fruit
  • one cup of fat-free milk

DINNERS Several of the dinner selections make three-four servings and the serving sizes can be increased for other family members. The day 1 dinner is:.

  • one-half of a fully cooked rotisserie chicken breast without the skin, about 4.5 oz (130 g)
  • two-thirds of a cup of Ore-Ida mashed potatoes cooked with one-third cup of low-fat milk
  • one-third cup of heated fat-free chicken gravy from ajar
  • one cup of steamed chopped frozen broccoli
  • one 50-calorie fruit

The day 2 dinner consists of:.

  • frozen Master Choice Four Cheeses Gourmet pizza or Tombstone Oven Rising Crust Three Cheese pizza, topped with a single layer of two cups of frozen chopped broccoli or spinach; makes four-six servings of 320 calories each; for one person, one-half cup of Stouffer’s Lean Cuisine Cheese French Bread Pizza and one-half cup of vegetables
  • two cups of the day 1 lunch salad
  • one 50-calorie fruit

The day 3 dinner is:.

  • a 100-calorie fruit.

The day 4 dinner is:.

  • one 9-oz (250-g) package of frozen Tyson Chicken Breast Strips with Rib Meat (90 calories per serving) and the frozen sauce from one Green Giant Create a Meal! Sweet & Sour Stir Fry (130 calories per serving), stir-fried with rice, and the frozen vegetables and pineapple, for three one-quarter-cup servings, with three-quarters cup of cooked rice per serving; for 1 person, frozen Healthy Choice Sweet and Sour Chicken (360 calories)
  • two breadsticks
  • one 50-calorie fruit

The day 5 dinner consists of:.

  • five Mrs. T’s Pierogies Potato and Cheddar Pasta Pockets (300 calories), with one-third cup of salsa and two tablespoons of fat-free sour cream, or three Golden Potato Blintzes (270 calories)
  • one cup of cooked frozen green beans
  • one 50-calorie fruit.

The day 6 dinner is:.

  • one whole-wheat mini pita pocket stuffed with one frozen Boca Burger—Chef Max’s Favorite (110 calories), lettuce, tomato, onion, and one tablespoon of ketchup, or 1 frozen low-fat Gardenburger, hamburger style (110 calories), or one frozen Morningstar Farms Garden Veggie Pattie (150 calories)
  • 4 oz (110 g) of baked frozen French fries (20-23 fries)
  • one 100-calorie fruit.

The day 7 dinner is:.

  • one 6-oz (170-g) individually frozen fish fillet, not breaded or flavored, sprinkled with one tablespoon of grated Parmesan cheese, two teaspoons of dried bread crumbs, paprika, salt, pepper, and two teaspoons of olive oil, and baked at 500°F (260°C) for about seven minutes
  • two cups of frozen Ore-Ida country-style hash browns, cooked by the fat-free method (128 calories)
  • one cup of cooked sliced zucchini

SNACKS Snacks can be eaten at any time of day. The day 1 snacks are:.

  • one Dole Fruit Juice Bar (45 calories) or one 50-calorie fruit
  • four reduced-fat Triscuits (65 calories) with 1 oz (28 g) of light Jarlsberg or reduced-fat cheddar cheese
  • one dill pickle

The day 2 snacks are:.

  • one Starbucks Ice Cream Mocca Frappuccino blended coffee bar (120 calories) or a Quaker Chewy granola bar (about 110 calories)
  • one 50-calorie fruit
  • eight raw baby carrots
  • The day 3 snacks include:
  • one cup of fat-free Dannon yogurt (110 calories)
  • one Dole fruit juice bar or one 50-calorie fruit .15 raw baby carrots
  • The day 4 snacks are:
  • one Dole Fruit Juice Bar or one 50-calorie fruit
  • one-half of a 3-oz (85-g) frozen Lender’s Big’n Crusty toasted bagel with one teaspoon of jam or preserves
  • one dill pickle

The day 5 snacks include:.

  • four reduced-fat Triscuits (65 calories) with 1 oz (28 g) of light Jarlsberg or reduced-fat cheddar cheese
  • one frozen Haagen-Dazs sorbet bar (80 calories) or Betty Crocker Healthy Temptations ice-cream sandwich (80 calories)
  • one dill pickle

The day 6 snacks are the same as for day 2. The day 7 snacks are:.

  • one-half of a 3-oz (85-g) frozen Lender’s Big’n Crusty toasted bagel with one teaspoon of jam or preserves
  • one frozen Haagen-Dazs sorbet bar or Betty Crocker Healthy Temptations ice-cream sandwich
  • one dill pickle

FRUITS. The 50-calorie fruit choices are:.

  • one-half cup of unsweetened applesauce
  • three apricots
  • one cup of blackberries
  • one-quarter of a medium cantaloupe or one-half cup of cubes
  • one-half of a medium grapefruit
  • one cup of honeydew melon cubes
  • one medium nectarine
  • one large peach or two-thirds cup of frozen, unsweetened peaches
  • one-half cup of juice-packed canned peaches, pears, or fruit cocktail
  • two one-half-inch-thick slices of fresh pineapple or three-quarters cup of cubes
  • one large plum
  • two tablespoons of raisins
  • eight medium strawberries or two-thirds cup of frozen, unsweetened strawberries
  • one medium tangerine

The 100-calorie fruits are:.

  • one large apple
  • three dried apricot halves
  • one cup blueberries
  • one medium banana
  • 1 cup (21) cherries
  • three-quarters cup (28) grapes
  • two medium kiwifruit
  • one large orange
  • >three dried peach halves
  • one medium pear
  • two-thirds cup of juice-packed canned pineapple
  • two and one-half cups of watermelon cubes

The new Good Housekeeping diet.

The more recent Good Housekeeping frozen-food diet relies on strict portion control for weight loss. The diet consists of 28 microwaveable frozen meals and supplemental foods that follow strict nutritional criteria. It includes calorie-free beverages and a daily multivitamin/multimineral supplement.

BREAKFAST. The frozen-food diet breakfast consists of:.

  • one cup of fat-free milk or 6 oz (170 g) of light yogurt
  • three-quarters cup of Kashi GoLean or three-quarters cup of Cheerios or Wheaties mixed with one-quarter cup All-Bran Extra Fiber
  • one serving of fruit

One serving of fruit is about 60 calories and is equivalent to:.

  • one small apple
  • one-half of a banana
  • three-quarters cup of blueberries
  • one cup of cubed cantaloupe or honeydew melon
  • one-half of a large grapefruit
  • 17 grapes
  • one kiwi
  • one-half of a small mango
  • one nectarine
  • one small orange
  • one large peach
  • one-half of a large pear
  • three-quarters cup of fresh pineapple
  • one-half cup of canned pineapple packed in juice
  • one cup of raspberries
  • one and one-quarter cup of whole strawberries
  • two small tangerines

LUNCH. Lunch consists of: .

  • a frozen meal
  • two cups of salad greens of alternating varieties with one-half cup of bite-sized steamed or raw vegetables
  • two tablespoons of reduced-calorie salad dressing, maximum 50 calories, or one teaspoon of olive oil mixed with flavored vinegar The frozen lunches are:
  • Ethnic Gourmet Chicken Korma
  • Ethnic Gourmet Tandoori with Spinach
  • Ethnic Gourmet Kung Pao Chicken
  • Healthy Choice Apple Glazed Pork Medallions
  • Healthy Choice Princess Chicken
  • Lean Cuisine Dinnertime Select Steak Tips Dijon
  • Lean Cuisine Spa Cuisine Salmon with Basil and one extra serving of fruit
  • Smart Ones Chicken Parmesan
  • Smart Ones Chicken Tenderloins with Barbecue Sauce
  • Smart Ones Lasagna Florentine
  • South Beach Mediterranean Style Chicken with Couscous
  • Stouffer’s Chicken Teriyaki
  • Uncle Ben’s Roasted Chicken & Vegetable
  • Uncle Ben’s Savory Beef Portabello

Allowable salad vegetables are: .

  • bell pepper
  • broccoli
  • cauliflower
  • celery
  • cucumber
  • mushrooms
  • onions
  • radishes
  • tomatoes

DINNER The dinner menu consists of: .

  • one frozen meal
  • salad as with lunch
  • salad dressing as with lunch

The frozen dinners are: .

  • Amy’s brand Cheese Ravioli with Sauce
  • Ethnic Gourmet brand Chicken Biryani over Rice
  • Healthy Choice brand Salisbury Steak
  • Lean Cuisine brand Dinnertime Selects Chicken Fettucini
  • Lean Cuisine brand Dinnertime Selects Chicken Portabello
  • Organic Classics Cajun Style Chicken Tettrazini with Penne Pasta
  • Organic Classics Chicken Cacciatore with Penne Pasta
  • Organic Classics Penne Pasta with Sauce & Meatballs
  • South Beach Cashew Chicken with Sugar Snap Peas
  • Stouffer’s Rigatoni Pasta with Roasted White Meat

Chicken

  • Stouffer’s Tuna Noodle Casserole
  • Uncle Ben’s Sweet and Sour Chicken
  • Uncle Ben’s Thai-Style Chicken ADDITIONAL FOODS. The following foods may be eaten once a day with meals or as a snack:
  • one cup of fat-free milk or 6 oz (170 g) of light yogurt
  • one serving of fruit
  • one serving of whole grain, about 80 calories The 80-calorie whole grains may be:
  • 1 oz (28 g) of mini wholegrain pita bread
  • a 1-oz (28-g) slice of 100% whole-wheat bread
  • four pieces of thin whole-wheat crispbread
  • four Triscuits
  • one mini bag of low-fat popcorn One treat of about 100 calories is permitted twice per week:
  • one-half cup of light ice cream
  • one Nabisco 100-calorie pack, any variety
  • 13 roasted almonds
  • four Hershey’s Kisses
  • 4 oz (118 ml) of red or white wine
  • one light beer

The AFFI diet

All of the meals in the AFFI diet include at least one serving of frozen fruits or vegetables. Daily meal plans are for 1,600-, 2,200-, and 2,800-calorie diets. A sample daily menu for a 1,580-calorie diet consists of 58 g of protein, 38 g of fiber, and 28 g of fat.

A typical breakfast consists of: .

  • two calcium-fortified, wholegrain frozen waffles
  • one cup of thawed frozen blueberries
  • 8 oz (237 ml) of calcium-fortified orange juice from frozen concentrate
  • one multivitamin and mineral supplement A sample lunch consists of:
  • 2.5 oz (70 g) of frozen vegetable burger
  • one cup of frozen mixed vegetables
  • one cup of cooked frozen long-grain brown rice A typical dinner is:
  • 4 oz (110 g) of frozen breaded baked fish filet (170 calories or less)
  • one cup of boiled frozen artichokes, drained
  • one cup of boiled frozen Brussels sprouts, drained
  • one cup of boiled frozen asparagus tips, drained
  • two-thirds cup of frozen whipped sweet potato. The afternoon and evening snacks consist of:
  • one small frozen oat-bran muffin (200 calories or less)
  • one slice of low-fat frozen cheesecake (150 calories or less)

Commercial diets

Like the other frozen-food diets, commercial frozen-food diets are designed for nutritional balance and portion control. Cederquist’s diet delivers an average 1,200 calories, with a range of 1,100-1,400 calories, in three daily meals and two snacks. The calories come from lean protein and complex carbohydrates rather than from simple carbohydrates and fats. The diet avoids foods such as white bread, potatoes, and pasta that contain simple sugars. The program accommodates one dinner outside of the diet per week.

Cederquist’s diet recommends:.

  • drinking a minimum of 64 oz (2 l) or eight glasses of water daily, as regular water, flavored water, decaffeinated diet soda, or diet fruit juices, to keep the body hydrated and ‘flushed’
  • limiting caffeinated drinks, such as coffee, tea, or diet soda, to two per day, since caffeine is a diuretic and will cause body cells to retain water, thereby slowing weight loss
  • drinking coffee black or with a low-fat creamer and/ or a sugar substitute
  • avoiding fruit juices because they are high in sugar
  • drinking low-fat (1%) or skim milk for protein, limited to 8 oz (237 ml) per day because of the lactose

Function

Frozen-food diets are used for weight-loss and weight-control, for convenience, and to save time.

These diets are especially useful for people who are unable to cook or prefer not to cook. Since the ingredients and portions of the meals are predetermined, the diets are much easier to follow than those that require counting calories or weighing ingredients. The Good Housekeeping frozen-food diet is aimed especially at people who feel that they don’t have time to diet, particularly if they have to prepare a different meal for the rest of the family. Some frozen-food diets are designed for diabetics, without simple sugars that could rapidly increase blood-sugar levels. Frozen-food diets may be difficult for vegetarians to follow.

Benefits

In addition to being quick and convenient, frozen-food diets are designed by nutritionists to be well-balanced, low in fat and calories, and to provide the necessary vitamins and minerals They supply a variety of different foods. The meals in the original Good Housekeeping frozen-food diet take less than 10 minutes to prepare and enables the dieter to lose 1 lb (0.45 kg) per week. The meals in the newer Good Housekeeping frozen-food diet take 9 minutes or less to prepare and enable the dieter to lose about 1.5 lb (0.7 kg) per week or 20 lb (9 kg) in just over three months. Commercial frozen-food diets make weight-loss claims of an average of 2–3 lb (0.9–1.4 kg) per week.

Frozen foods avoid spoilage problems associated with fresh foods, particularly those that are harvested, transported long distances, and stored before they reach the consumer. Frozen foods also require fewer trips to the grocery store.

Precautions

Frozen food, particularly frozen meals and entrées, can be very expensive compared to buying fresh or canned food and preparing meals, although frozen fruits and vegetables may be less expensive than fresh produce. Frozen-food diets also require a significant amount of frozen storage capacity. Recommended choices, such as those in the Good Housekeeping frozen-food diets, may be biased toward advertisers or corporate sponsors.

Like many processed foods, frozen foods—especially frozen diet foods—contain various chemicals that some believe may be harmful. Frozen diet foods often contain monosodium glutamate (MSG), flavorings, and hydro-lyzed vegetable protein. In large quantities glutamate may be damaging to the brain and nervous system.

Risks

Frozen food is considered to be safe. Freezing inhibits the growth of some pathogens and reduces the risk of food contamination. However the thawing and refreezing of frozen foods may pose a risk. Frozen foods can remain too long in the freezer and can suffer from freezer burn and the formation of ice crystals.

Research

In the 1990s the U.S. Food and Drug Administration declared frozen fruits and vegetables to be as nutritious as fresh produce and, in some cases, more nutritious.

The 2003 University of Illinois research study found that women who ate frozen main courses for lunch and dinner for an eight-week period lost an average of 12 lb (5.4 kg). In contrast the women who followed a diet that was equivalent in calories to the frozen-food diet, but which required them to plan and cook meals, lost an average of only 8 lb (3.6 kg). According to LeaAnn Carson, a research dietician and one of the study’s authors, the results suggest that women who prepare their own food actually consume more calories because they do not accurately measure the ingredients, whereas the portion sizes of the frozen-food entrees are strictly controlled.

According to Cederquist, medical research has shown that a diet that varies the number of daily calories slightly is preferable to one that strictly adheres to a set number of calories. Varying the caloric intake prevents the body’s metabolism from adjusting to the set point and making it progressively harder to lose more weight and maintain the weight loss.

General acceptance

Frozen foods are a huge industry and frozen dinners and entrees constitute the largest category of frozen foods. Consumer demand for frozen meals grew steadily in the first years of the twenty-first century. The average American eats six frozen meals per month. In a survey reported by the AFFI, frozen-food products were among the top three food items that Americans did not want to live without. A poll conducted by the Tupperware Corporation found that on an average trip to the supermarket 94% of American shoppers sometimes purchase frozen food and 30% always buy some frozen food.

Surveys conducted in 2006 under the auspices of the AFFI found that the majority of American shoppers believe that frozen foods have many of the same.

QUESTIONS TO ASK YOUR DOCTOR

  • How much weight do I need to lose?
  • Would I be expected to lose weight on a frozen-food diet?
  • What factors should I take into consideration in choosing a frozen-food diet?
  • Should I be concerned about MSG or other additives in the frozen food?
  • Should I take vitamin and/or mineral supplements while following a frozen food diet?

good qualities as fresh foods and retain the same or more nutrients as foods that have not been frozen. Consumers generally believe that in recent years frozen foods have significantly improved in taste, variety, and ease of preparation. In general they also believe that frozen foods are safer than prepared refrigerated foods.

BOOKS

Blaylock, Russell L. Excitotoxins: The Taste That Kills Santa Fe, NM: Health Press, 1998.

Fogle, Jared and Anthony Bruno. Jared the Subway Guy: Winning Through Losing: 13 Lessons for Turning Your Life Around New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2006.

PERIODICALS

Hammock, Delia A. ‘The Frozen-Food Diet: Quick Meals, Quick Results—Lose Six Pounds This Month With Our Yummy (Microwavable) Meals.’ Good Housekeeping 241 (October 2005): 231-235.

Mermelstein, Shari and Carol Wapner. ‘The Frozen Food Diet.’ Good Housekeeping 237 (September 1998): 119-121. Includes menus.

OTHER

‘AFFI Invites a Fresh Perspective on Frozen Foods.’ AFFI February 2006. <http://www.affi.com/Fresh_Look_Initiative_White_Paper_AFFI.pdf> (April 12, 2007).

Category Promotion Committee, Western Frozen Food Convention. ‘Telling the Story that Sells.’ AFFI February 27, 2006. <http://www.affi.com/PDFS/_KRESE.pdf> (April 12, 2007).

‘Cutting Calories—and Cooking Time.’ AFFI. <http://www.affi.org/PDFS/NAPS-Bauer.pdf> (April 12, 2007).

‘FAQS.’ Diet To Your Door. <http://www.diettoyourdoor.com/faqs.asp> (April 12, 2007).

‘Frozen Food Trends.’ AFFI. <http://www.affi.com/factstat-trends.asp> (April 12, 2007.

‘A Long Life or a Quality Life?’ Capital Connection. <http://www.affi.com/PDFS/LongLife-QualityLife.pdf> (April 12, 2007). .

U.S. Department of Agriculture. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2000. <http://www.affi.com/images/usdadietaryguide.pdf> (April 12, 2007).

ORGANIZATIONS

American Frozen Food Institute. Food Industry Environmental Council. 2000 Corporate Ridge, Suite 1000, McLean, VA 22102. (703) 821-0770. <http://www.affi.com>

American Society of Bariatric Physicians. 2821 S. Parker Rd., Suite 625, Aurora, CO 80014. (877) 266-6834. <http://www.asbp.org>

The Center for Food Safety. 660 Pennsylvania Ave, SE, ndash302, Washington, DC 20003. (202) 547-9359. <http://www.centerforfoodsafety.org>

National Uniformity for Food Coalition. (202) 295-3946. <http://www.uniformityforfood.org>

Margaret Alic, PhD.


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